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Workshops Do you want to take your own scientific writing skills to the next level? Our team had a nice lunch to celebrate the acceptance [of the articles]. Thank you for allowing me to read and comment on this. I think that it is superbly written, beautifully clear, balanced and informative. Really this is a very nice article and I am honoured to be involved and have such an easy task to review!

We are very pleased with the final product and successful finish to the project. We sincerely thank you, Aspire Scientific, for your continuous and dedicated support. Your brilliant liaison with the co-authors and excellent quality of medical work are great asset to our team.

Many thanks for providing this excellent first draft. Many thanks for the huge effort today and for the overall high quality of the work that you have delivered. Rick is an experienced medical writing professional who has spent 15 years working in, or for, international medical communications agencies.

During this time, Rick has helped deliver publications and medical education initiatives across a diverse range of therapy areas. His commitment to editorial excellence and publications best practice is absolute, and he takes great pride in helping all members of our writing team also achieve these high standards.

To send an email to Rick, click here. Ryan brings more than 20 years of experience of working within pharmaceutical companies and in editorial positions within medical communications agencies. During this time, Ryan has developed excellent medical writing skills, a good knowledge of numerous therapeutic areas and extensive experience of delivering effective medical education and writing programmes across multiple channels. To send an email to Ryan, click here.

He has expertise in global strategic publication planning and delivery across a wide range of therapy areas, as well as an established history of developing and coordinating both traditional and multichannel scientific content.

Duncan is committed to the quality of his own work, and that of his teams. David has been working within international medical communications agencies for approximately 15 years. During this time, David has developed extensive experience in a broad range of publication activities and delivered comprehensive communication programmes across many therapy areas.

With his meticulous attention to detail, excellent medical writing skills and process-driven approach, David has a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed. Hannah is an experienced medical writer and scientist, having spent over a decade working in the pharmaceutical and medical communications industries.

After completing her Master of Pharmacology degree at the University of Bath having spent a year working at GlaxoSmithKline during this time Hannah continued her research career at Pfizer, working in a number of therapeutic areas before specialising in the field of chronic pain. Hannah then took her passions for scientific education and communication into medical writing.

A specialist in medical education, she has in-depth expertise in the development of primary manuscripts, eLearning, educational programmes and scientific meetings across multiple therapy areas. Aspire Scientific is led by experienced editorial team members with at least 10 years of experience who are supported by a team of rigorously selected, highly qualified medical writers and academic specialists.

This means we can provide cutting-edge expertise across a broad range of therapy areas. This was a major step forward in the production of iron as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution.

Refracting telescopes first appeared in the Netherlands in , apparently the product of spectacle makers experimenting with lenses. The inventor is unknown but Hans Lippershey applied for the first patent, followed by Jacob Metius of Alkmaar. The reflecting telescope was described by James Gregory in his book Optica Promota He argued that a mirror shaped like the part of a conic section , would correct the spherical aberration that flawed the accuracy of refracting telescopes.

His design, the " Gregorian telescope ", however, remained un-built. In , Isaac Newton argued that the faults of the refracting telescope were fundamental because the lens refracted light of different colors differently. He concluded that light could not be refracted through a lens without causing chromatic aberrations. The invention of the vacuum pump paved the way for the experiments of Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke into the nature of vacuum and atmospheric pressure.

The first such device was made by Otto von Guericke in It consisted of a piston and an air gun cylinder with flaps that could suck the air from any vessel that it was connected to.

In , he pumped the air out of two conjoined hemispheres and demonstrated that a team of sixteen horses were incapable of pulling it apart. Evangelista Torricelli — was best known for his invention of the mercury barometer. The motivation for the invention was to improve on the suction pumps that were used to raise water out of the mines.

Torricelli constructed a sealed tube filled with mercury, set vertically into a basin of the same substance. The column of mercury fell downwards, leaving a Torricellian vacuum above.

Surviving instruments from this period, [] [] [] [] tend to be made of durable metals such as brass, gold, or steel, although examples such as telescopes [] made of wood, pasteboard, or with leather components exist. In addition, the instruments preserved in collections may not have received heavy use in scientific work; instruments that had visibly received heavy use were typically destroyed, deemed unfit for display, or excluded from collections altogether.

Intact air pumps are particularly rare. The base was wooden, and the cylindrical pump was brass. Instrument makers of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century were commissioned by organizations seeking help with navigation, surveying, warfare, and astronomical observation.

The idea that modern science took place as a kind of revolution has been debated among historians. A weakness of the idea of scientific revolution is the lack of a systematic approach to the question of knowledge in the period comprehended between the 14th and 17th centuries, leading to misunderstandings on the value and role of modern authors.

From this standpoint, the continuity thesis is the hypothesis that there was no radical discontinuity between the intellectual development of the Middle Ages and the developments in the Renaissance and early modern period and has been deeply and widely documented by the works of scholars like Pierre Duhem, John Hermann Randall, Alistair Crombie and William A. Wallace, who proved the preexistence of a wide range of ideas used by the followers of the Scientific Revolution thesis to substantiate their claims.

Thus, the idea of a scientific revolution following the Renaissance is—according to the continuity thesis—a myth. Some continuity theorists point to earlier intellectual revolutions occurring in the Middle Ages , usually referring to either a European Renaissance of the 12th century [] [] or a medieval Muslim scientific revolution , [] [] [] as a sign of continuity. Another contrary view has been recently proposed by Arun Bala in his dialogical history of the birth of modern science.

Bala proposes that the changes involved in the Scientific Revolution—the mathematical realist turn, the mechanical philosophy , the atomism , the central role assigned to the Sun in Copernican heliocentrism —have to be seen as rooted in multicultural influences on Europe.

He sees specific influences in Alhazen 's physical optical theory, Chinese mechanical technologies leading to the perception of the world as a machine , the Hindu-Arabic numeral system , which carried implicitly a new mode of mathematical atomic thinking , and the heliocentrism rooted in ancient Egyptian religious ideas associated with Hermeticism.

Bala argues that by ignoring such multicultural impacts we have been led to a Eurocentric conception of the Scientific Revolution. In the ultimate analysis, even if the revolution was rooted upon a multicultural base it is the accomplishment of Europeans in Europe.

A third approach takes the term "Renaissance" literally as a "rebirth". A closer study of Greek philosophy and Greek mathematics demonstrates that nearly all of the so-called revolutionary results of the so-called scientific revolution were in actuality restatements of ideas that were in many cases older than those of Aristotle and in nearly all cases at least as old as Archimedes. Aristotle even explicitly argues against some of the ideas that were espoused during the Scientific Revolution, such as heliocentrism.

The basic ideas of the scientific method were well known to Archimedes and his contemporaries, as demonstrated in the well-known discovery of buoyancy. Atomism was first thought of by Leucippus and Democritus. Lucio Russo claims that science as a unique approach to objective knowledge was born in the Hellenistic period c.

C , but was extinguished with the advent of the Roman Empire. This view does not deny that a change occurred but argues that it was a reassertion of previous knowledge a renaissance and not the creation of new knowledge. It cites statements from Newton, Copernicus and others in favour of the Pythagorean worldview as evidence.

In more recent analysis of the Scientific Revolution during this period, there has been criticism of not only the Eurocentric ideologies spread, but also of the dominance of male scientists of the time.

The incorporation of women's work in the sciences during this time tends to be obscured. Scholars have tried to look into the participation of women in the 17th century in science, and even with sciences as simple as domestic knowledge women were making advances.

Another idea to consider is the way this period influenced even the women scientists of the periods following it. Annie Jump Cannon was an astronomer who benefitted from the laws and theories developed from this period; she made several advances in the century following the Scientific Revolution.

It was an important period for the future of science, including the incorporation of women into fields using the developments made. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Scientific revolution.

This article is about a period in the history of science. For the process of scientific progress via revolutions, proposed by Thomas Kuhn , see Paradigm shift. Aristotelian Physics and Science in the Middle Ages. Stillman Drake , Madison: Journal of the History of Ideas. History of the inductive sciences. Philosophy of the Inductive sciences. Controversy in marketing theory: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. Retrieved 28 August University of California Press, pp.

It would be a mistake of equal magnitude, however, to overlook the intricate interlocking of scientific and religious concerns throughout the century. Precursors of Copernican Heliocentrism according to De revolutionibus , I, 10". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.

Notes and Records of the Royal Society https: Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton. All those ancients knew the first law [of motion] who attributed to atoms in an infinite vacuum a motion which was rectilinear, extremely swift and perpetual because of the lack of resistance Aristotle was of the same mind, since he expresses his opinion thus For why should it rest here rather than there?

Hence either it will not be moved, or it must be moved indefinitely, unless something stronger impedes it. The Philosophy of the Commentators, — AD: An impetus is an inner force impressed into a moving body from without. It thus contrasts with purely external forces like the action of air on projectiles in Aristotle, and with purely internal forces like the nature of the elements in Aristotle and his followers.

Aristotle, for example, argues in Phys. American Journal of Physics. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 21 October Princeton University Press, p. The Story of Philosophy. The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages.

The Person of the Millennium: The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity 2nd ed. Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Translated by Stillman Drake 2nd ed. University of California Press. In the translation by Thomas Salusbury: University of Chicago Press. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 22 November Retrieved on 26 September Andreas Libavius versus Tycho Brahe".

A brief resume of their lives". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal. Retrieved 17 April Physics for Scientists and Engineers. The theory of experimental electricity. A history of electricity: The intellectual rise in electricity from antiquity to the days of Benjamin Franklin.

Experiments and notes about the mechanical origin or production of particular qualities. Dictionary of National Biography. Presses universitaires de France. A Source Book in Mathematics.

New York and London: Or, an Engine to Raise Water by Fire. Profiles in Colonial History. The History of the Telescope. Retrieved 1 August Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. George Routledge and Sons. Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 30 May Interpretation and Cultural History. Scientific Instruments in States of Disrepair". Segreti, publicacion periodica digital. An Illustrated History , p. Renaissance of Sciences in Islamic Countries , p.

The Making of Humanity. Islam, China and the West , 2nd. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology: The Madame Curie Complex.

The Rise of Modern Science Explained: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. The Genesis of Science.

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Scientific writing in English started in the 14th century. The Royal Society established good practice for scientific writing. Founder member Thomas Sprat wrote on the importance of plain and accurate description rather than rhetorical flourishes in his History of the Royal Society of London. Robert Boyle emphasized the importance of not boring the reader with a dull, flat style.

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This book shows scientists how to apply their analysis andsynthesis skills to overcoming the challenge of howto write, as well as what to write, to maximise theirchances of publishing in international scientific journals. The book uses analysis of the scientific article genre to provideclear processes for writing each section of a manuscript, startingwith clear ‘story’ construction and.

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Scientific Writing: Easy When You Know How: Medicine & Health Science Books @ One of the most common questions I get is whether it is acceptable to use “we” or “I” in a scientific paper. “We” or “I” are first-person pronouns.

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The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through . Article: Writing Cover Letters for Scientific Manuscripts - Another article from BioScience Writers.