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Research Paper Outline

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❶Support for your major points, indicated by capital Arabic numerals i.

How to Write a Research Paper?

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This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results. In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected. In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive. You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them.

Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis.

These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws. Very few experiments are per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance.

Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected. Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future.

Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; there is no right or wrong in science, only progress. Finally, you can discuss at the end ideas for further research, either refining the experiment or suggesting new areas. Even if your paper was a one off, somebody may come along and decide that they find your research interesting and that they would like to continue from where you left off.

This is really just a more elaborate version of the abstract. In a few paragraphs you should summarize your findings. Your abstract will do most of this for you but, as long as you do not get carried away, especially for longer reports, it can help the reader absorb your findings a little more.

Include all of your direct references here, even if you only found a couple of sentences. In the case where somebody referred to an original source, reference that too, but if you did not manage to get hold of it, try to rewrite so that you will not have to reference or use "referred in"-citation.

Here it is polite to acknowledge anybody who helped you with this report, although do not go overboard; it is not an Oscar speech. Your supervisor is a good start, as well as others who helped. If a landowner gave you permission to take samples then it is good practice to acknowledge them and give them a summary of your results, if permitted. Appendices are very useful because they give you a place to dump raw data and calculations.

They must still be laid out correctly; the data must be relevant and referred to in the main report. If you have a lot of relevant photographs of sample sites and methods then they belong here.

It is also useful to insert a Google map plan to show from where you took samples. Hopefully this will have given you a good oversight into writing that perfect report.

It is not as daunting as it seems and if you do your research and listen to your supervisor then all should be well and you can get a good grade. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.

Martyn Shuttleworth Mar 14, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Don't have time for it all now?

No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Write a Paper". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Leave this field blank: Want to stay up to date? Check Out the Official Book Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level.

Read More also available as ebook. Save this course for later Don't have time for it all now? Add to my courses. Take it with you wherever you go. The Research Council of Norway. Login Sign Up Privacy Policy. Joining of Republican party. Summarize arguments and efforts. The Federalist Papers influenced the ratification of the Constitution by making some of their most important arguments, including the importance of being in a Union by having a Constitution, answering to the objections made by the Anti-federalists about separation of powers, and defending opposing arguments made against the characteristics of the executive and judicial branch as provided in the Constitution.

Describe The Federalist Papers are and when they started. The Federalist influenced the ratification of the Constitution by making some of their most important arguments, including the importance of being in a Union by having a Constitution, answering to the objections made by the Anti-federalists about separation of powers, and defending opposing arguments made against the characteristics of the executive and judicial branch as provided in the Constitution.

State when The Federalist was printed and published. Discuss the intentions and purposes of The Federalist. Argument for the benefit of a Union. A Union would guard against external dangers. A Union would guard against internal dangers. Argument of the problem with complete separation of powers. Anti-federalists wanted a complete separation of the judicial, executive, and legislative branches.

The Federalist said the maxim of complete separation of powers is misunderstood. The branches need some limited power of the other branches to protect themselves from encroachment of the other branches Federalist The branches need to have the interests of maintaining their powers, and not letting the other branches take that away.

Argument for a single executive, and against a plural executive. It would take too long for the people in the executive position to make decision in an emergency, because they might disagree. In a plural executive, it is hard to tell who is responsible for a wrongdoing because they can all blame each other, so a single executive would lead to more responsible behavior.

Argument in favor of judicial review and terms of good behavior for judges. The Federalist argued that judicial review was necessary to protect the judicial branch from the Legislature. A term of good behavior was necessary to get qualified people for the positions; it would also give them time to develop knowledge.

The dates of the ratification of the Constitution by the States. What did Common Sense say that was so different? It denounced both the monarchy and the English Constitution, which had previously been looked upon as a brilliant political document.

Americans realized the inherent fallacies of hereditary government specifically monarchy as well as the English Constitution which protected the monarchy. It called for Americans to disconnect themselves from the flawed British system and create a new one for themselves. C ommon Sense questioned the long-standing belief that residents of the colonies were inseparably connected to England.

It gave them a new identity — Americans rather then Britons. It also outlined the benefits of a republican government, which would go on to influence the ideas of the Founding Fathers as they created a new government for their new country.

The debate in the American Colonies shifted from that of reconciliation with England to that of independence. It was read by an unprecedented number of colonists and united a great majority of them behind independence. It inspired American intellectuals with its call for independence, leading to the composition of the Declaration of Independence a mere six months later.

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This is why you should establish early on the scope and limitations of your paper which will provide the foundation for your research paper outline. Basically, your outline will constitute three main sections: the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion.

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For a short and straightforward paper it may not be necessary to include a contents page. This is not mandatory for a research paper. Introduction This section of your report is where you will document all the painstaking research .

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Aug 23,  · Five Parts: Sample Outlines Outline Type and Structure Outline Levels Components of Effective Outlines Organizing the Outline Community Q&A Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before%(62). An outline is a basement of your research paper from which you build up the whole paper. Each outline consists of three main parts the Introduction, the Body, and the Conclusion. For a successful and high-quality research paper, .

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A research paper outline is a generalized, organized overview of a research topic. Outlines are useful as they help the writer think about a topic in more detail, revealing areas that may require more research. Like most outlines written for academic papers, there are at least three sections: the introduction, body. How To: Outlining a Research Paper Note for students: This document was prepared by Dr Amy Stuart for a class in which she requires a research paper related to air quality.