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The 6D model of national culture

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❶More specifically, research shows these countries have the following characteristics as seen in the chart below.

Origin of Hofestede's Fifth Dimension

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They are just there for convenience. For each dimension here is a brief description and a ten-minute video in which Geert Hofstede explains that dimension. Read more Individualism does not mean egoism. It means that individual choices and decisions are expected. Collectivism does not mean closeness. It means that one "knows one's place" in life, which is determined socially.

With a metaphor from physics, people in an individualistic society are more like atoms flying around in a gas while those in collectivist societies are more like atoms fixed in a crystal. Read more This dimension is thought to date from the advent of agriculture, and with it, of large-scale societies.

Until that time, a person would know their group members and leaders personally. This is not possible where tens of thousands and more have to coordinate their lives. Without acceptance of leadership by powerful entities, none of today's societies could run.

Read more In a masculine society, men are supposed to be tough. Men are supposed to be from Mars, women from Venus. Winning is important for both genders. Quantity is important and big is beautiful. In a feminine society, the genders are emotionally closer. Competing is not so openly endorsed, and there is sympathy for the underdog. This is NOT about individuals, but about expected emotional gender roles. Masculine societies are much more openly gendered than feminine societies. Read more Uncertainty avoidance has nothing to do with risk avoidance, nor with following rules.

It has to do with anxiety and distrust in the face of the unknown, and conversely, with a wish to have fixed habits and rituals, and to know the truth. Long-term orientation deals with change.

Read more In a long-time-oriented culture, the basic notion about the world is that it is in flux, and preparing for the future is always needed. Indulgence is about the good things in life. Read more In an indulgent culture it is good to be free. Thanks for leaving a comment. As with anything related to cultural differences: I agree fully with your Chinese student: One of the trait is that people in this kind of culture have a deep appreciation for tradition, personal steadiness and stability.

USA belongs to short-term orientation culture, but they also belong to the low uncertainty avoidence culture. It means that they are not afraid of changing and they consider change in life a normal thing. China belongs to the high uncertanty avoidence culture and they are afraid of changing and they hope to have a steady life.

The traits of these two dimensions are contradictory. Second to your question: Or, put differently, Americans are not risk averse. Neither are Chinese both score low on Uncertainty Avoidance. I am currently doing culture based research, and I am wondering where you obtained your LTO score for Zimbabwe? I have been unable to find score on any of the dimensions for Zimbabwe. Thank you for your comment! Am I missing something here… Because I have studied in China and even Chinese teachers used to say that Chinese people like traditions, are afraid of losing their face and favors and gifts are very usual in business.

The thing is this 5th Dimension is very difficult to understand for non-Chinese Asians in general. When the tree falls in the forest and there is no one there, of course it makes a noise. This is how we think including myself. The characteristics you mention in your comment are pretty much all related to the Collective aspect of Chinese society.

As I said before at the beginning of this post, I hardly ever explain this dimension. For one reason that it is difficult for me to comprehend emotionally, and second that it usually leads to more confusion than to more clarity.

I would like to enquire how LTO affect the uptake of insurance for people of a particular culture. I am currently doing a study on health financing in Zimbabwe and one thing that I have found is that a lot of people in Zimbabwe do not value insurance in general and health insurance in particular.

Can this be associated with a low LTO score or is it more to do with uncertainty avoidance dimension? Thank you for your comment. If any dimension has an influence I think it would indeed be Uncertainty Avoidance. Hi UAI scoring countries would then put a higher value on insurance. But you observe just the opposite. Which in my eyes, has everything to do with the financial status and capabilities of most Zimbabweans.

In other words, it is not top of mind because other things take priority currently.

Elements of Long and Short-Term Orientation

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Long-term orientation versus short-term orientation is one of five cultural dimensions identified by Geert Hofstede. Cultures demonstrating a long-term orientation emphasize preparation for the future, while cultures demonstrating a short-term orientation are more concerned with short-term gratification.

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Since the concept of this dimension is often quite confusing for Westerns, I’d like to share a couple of examples of Long-Term Orientation in this article. By the way, this Long Term Orientation Hofstede dimension is known under two names: LTO and CDI, or Confusion Dynamism Index.

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Examples Of Long Term Orientation - [ ] previous post on the cultural dimension Long Term Orientation had a lot of comments. Mainly on Social media. Since Hofstede’s six dimensions | h - [ ] smith, c. (, December 3). What Is Long Term Orientation. Hofstede: Long Term / Short Term. Hofstede' new dimension is based on the study of Michael Bond in Hong Kong which had noted that Hofstede’s previous four cultural dimensions did not adequately reflect Asian perspectives on culture.

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Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension of Hofstede which was added after the original four to try to distinguish the difference in thinking between the East and West. From the original IBM studies, this difference was something that could not be deduced. Cultural Dimension series part 5 - Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Normative Orientation.