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World War I essay papers

❶The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November




The Aims of Germany and Japan The s were a tumultuous time. After World War I, the Allied powers seemed determined to preserve peace, but Germany and Japan held a shared goal of world domination. In two memorandums about the plans of Germany and Japan, U. He blamed all the economic and social troubles on these groups, Germany had pushed the U. Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare USW in the oceans against non-army ships. This violated the United States rights for neutrality and angered Americans, Even though Germans living under Bismarck did not have much power when it came to government, I still would have rather lived in Germany than in France during the Third Republic.

France had another bloody revolution in that was suppressed in may of that same year. Throughout the Third Republic not much changed: The government was weak; No really important bills were passed; No fo The similarities between the unification of Germany and the unification of Italy are: Other similarities were after the unifications both countries were ruled by a monarch and the people who were unified generaly felt more loyalty to their local government thanto the new Germany is a German speaking country in central Europe.

Its capital is Berlin. Its flag consists of three colored, horizontal stripes. The colors are black, red, and orange. It has been a united country for only ten years. It became divided during World War II after only 74 years of unification Many agreed that there were to be no more wars hence a treaty was signed. After Germany had surrende Far more devastating than car wrecks, violent crimes or natural disasters, is the tragedy that we call war.

More men have lost their lives, broken their dreams and shattered their hope than is possible to fathom. But far more than death stalks the battlefields. A host of terrors, including homesickness, lonlieness, and the loss of innocence play major roles in soldier's lives. In history classes today elementary, high school, and some in the college or university level as well our teachers rarely give us an in-depth look at events, instead they just give us a quick scan of what happened, when, and why the events mentioned are important.

I have yet to have had a history teacher get deep into the subject matter of a certain event, or chain of events as I would like More Trouble Than Good. In a miserably failed attempt to stop the already ongoing violence during world war one, and prevent further conflict in the region, the Treaty of Versailles was proposed by ex-president Woodrow Wilson.

Such treaty — not using the term according to its stipulated meaning — set cruel rules and pointers that would only produce more violence and terror. The Treaty of Versailles was a do Many historians have disputed over the origins of World War I, who started it, who is to blame for the outbreak of the war?

And there are no accurate answers to the questions. To support the statement "Germany was responsible for the outbreak of World War I" to a full extent is During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there were many technological advances that changed the way war was looked upon. War was no longer two opposing groups meeting in a field for a prearranged fight. It had evolved into a strategic game where the stronger your toys, the better your team fought.

The industrial revolution had changed the way war was engaged, fought, and ended. There are many things that contributed to the start of WW1. The war began in but the bitter feelings and tensions between countries had started much earlier For 20 years, the nations of Europe had been making alliances.

It was thought that alliances would promote peace. Each country would be protected by others in case of war. The danger of the alliances was that an argument b Compare and contrast the U. The underlying causes of the war was the nationalism that was found throughout Europe in the 19th and 20th century.

There was political and economic rivalry among the nations. But the main "shot" that started the war was on June 28, Although it was seen as a European war, the Australia government decided that Australia should support its 'Mother Country', Britain. The prime-minister at the time, Joseph Cook, stated Australia's position: To fight, you must be brutal and ruthless, and the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter into the very fiber of national life, infecting the Congress, the courts, the policeman on the The answer to this seemingly simple question is not elementary.

There was more to the onset of the war then the event of an Austrian prince being murdered in Serbia, as is what most people consider to be the cause of World War I. Furthermore, the effects of the war wer This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers. The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War They were right in a way. The societies could not support a long war unchanged.

The First World War left no aspect of Europ How the Treaty of Versailles Effected Germany Essay submitted by Unknown When World War I ended on November 11, , peace talks went on for months due to the Allied leaders wanting to punish the enemy and "dividing the spoils of war. The issue that took the most time were t No one was immune to the effects of this global conflict and each country was affected in various ways.

However, one area of relative comparison can be noted in the experiences of Causes of WWI Essay submitted by Unknown The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now.

The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian natio During the First World War, many people were accused of being spies and helping the enemy. One of them, Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, has gone down in history as one of the most legendary women of all time. Using the pseudonym Mata Hari, Margaretha led a career as an exotic dancer, was accused of spying for the Germans, did spy for the French and was executed before a firing squad.

Ferrell is a chronology of every aspect of the first World War and the period in which it took place. Ferrell wrote this book to provide an unbiased dissertation of one of the scariest events in the history of the United States and the entire world. Morris, Ferrell was pr They had therefore worked out a plan, years earlier, to deal with this problem. It was called the Schlie Trench Warfare Every aspect of the war, is ugly and brutal.

The worst aspect of this war was trench warfare. This trench warfare was so horrific, it cause many people to loose their minds, or even worse, loose their lives. There were many things that made this style of fighting brutal; the 3 significant ones are the fighting conditions they had to live in, the poor supplies they had to re West Civ Study Guide chap. Who were the Allied Powers and the Central Powers?

What were the major causes of the war? In the s Germany, under a dictatorship lead by Adolf Hitler, started expanding their rule. Each of the major world powers England, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States gave a response to this expansion. England preferred being in "splendid isolation," or being safe on their island.

Conservative Stanley Baldwin promoted "splendid isolation" when he was prime minister of Britain The writer did a great job of showing us what war is really like.

The movie also displayed the reality of war. For instance, it showed the parades in the streets when the soldiers were going off to war. The teachers were really pressuring and encouraging the students to join the wa The causes of World War I.

World War I like many other events in history, occured in wake and equally influential events that led to a single outcome. Yet, there was one major cause of this war. Although there were some little insignifacant causese of this war.

Some historians have argued that imperialism should bear the responsability, while others claim that natio My report is on World War 1 and since you can tell all about it in just three pages I will tell you about important things that have happen in World War 1.

To start out with, the cause of the war was the spirit of intense nationalism that permeated Europe throughout the 19th and into the 20th century ,this was the main reason why. On June 28, a boy by the name of Gacrilo Princip, age Introduction World War I was a war that claimed innumerous lives; it was also a war in which new types of warfare and tactics were demonstrated in the battlefield.

More efficient and mass-killing weapons were used in this war than in previous wars. Air power mainly served as a support and reconnaissance force in modern warfare.

Its importance was fully discovered and recognized during World War I The discussion of peace treaties immediately stirs the mind to think of the wars and battles which were the cause for the treaty. Each of the One treaty which sticks out as one that was poorly designed, initiated, and implemented was the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles w World war one, also known as the war to end all wars, was a brutal war which affected all of Europe, and outlying areas.

The assassination of Arch Duke of Austria, Francis Ferdinand by a Bosnian patriot was responsible for the initial outbreak of fighting.

On July 28, , world war one began. Fighting commenced between Austria-Hungary, whom declared war on Russia, an ally of Serbia. World War I was a military conflict from to It was transformed into a general European struggle by declaration of war against Russia on August 1, and eventually became a global war involving 32 nations.

Twenty - eight of these nations, known as the Allies and the Associated Powers, and inclu The first World War was a horrible experience for all sides involved. However, one area of relative comparison can be noted in the experiences of the French and German soldiers. Wen World War I ended on November 11, , peace talks went on for months due to the Allied leaders wanting to punish the enemy and "dividing the spoils of war.

The issue that took the most time were the territorial issues because the empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman, and Germany had collapsed. The Causes Of World War I June 15, World War I, like many events in history, occurred in the wake of numerous and equally influential events that led to a single outcome. Yet, there are still ideas that there was one major cause, and other smaller, less important causes. Some historians have argued that imperialism should bear the responsibility, while others claim that nationalism was t It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies.

The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'.

The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.

By Christmas trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November until March It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres 22 April May , and more especially during the Battle of Verdun 21 February December , a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme 1 July19 November and the Third Battle of Ypres 31 July November they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace.

This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 14 March and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' June-September , which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as , Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power.

It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April , but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C.

Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March , the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Turkey surrendered on 31 October The war also found its way to tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over , British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel 1 November and Jutland 31 May-1 June , the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare February brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April , played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism in collaboration with the French , while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria and France seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September until August , was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation.

His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: By the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.

The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France though not in Russia failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.

Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During and France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans.

This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.

If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.


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World War I is considered by some, the first man-made catastrophe of the twentieth century. Many scholars still debate the underlying causes of World War I. There are many things that contributed to the war. The causes and effects of the war changed the lives of many people. Many of the effects of the war are still evident in today.

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The Causes of World War 1 Essay Words | 4 Pages. World War 1 (better known as The Great War), was caused by a great many elements, some long-term, some short-term and the spark. Together these reasons created a brutal war involving many countries across the globe and also killing a vast number of the world’s population.

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Essay on The First World War (WWI) - WORLD WAR ONE There has always been wars, and there will always be wars. Most wars leave a huge impact on the history of that nation, especialy if it involves more than one. - World War I, known as the Great War prior to World War II, was a global war which began in Europe on July and ended on November 11, The Central Power, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, were at war with the Allies, Great Britain, France, and Russia.

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World War 1 started in Europe in the year and went though 4 years and ended in the year The war started out with an assassination of heir to the Austrian throne by a Serbian nationalist. Jan 11,  · 9. World War 1 Essay world war 1 - Words. centercenter WOrld war 1 Abstract There were wars before this and there were many and will continue to be many wars after, but this would be the one that all other wars would be based on. A war .