In addition to the psychological problems of individuals, social conditions contribute greatly to the problem. People who are alienated from society become addicted to drugs, as Sen. Robert Kennedy pointed out back in Solving the drug problem means "solving poverty and broken homes, racial discrimination and inadequate education, slums and unemployment" cited in Goldberg, p.
Instead, we treat prostitutes as though they were scum. A New York study has shown that the police, the courts, and their clients johns routinely mistreat them in a manner that violates civil liberties and human rights.
This is "mirrored at the judicial level, where sex workers bear the brunt of the criminal justice system while johns usually get off relatively lightly" Facts about…… [Read More].
Asylums in the 19th Century. He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate.
The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. Residents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section.
Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards. Kirkbride asylums were designed to…… [Read More].
Fallacies Fallacy 1 On His. This is begging the question because the writer assuming a real person actually wrote that testimonial is expecting the reader to accept on faith that this is true, without any way to check its validity. It is also an appeal to ignorance because very few men in the general population have any scientific or medical knowledge about penis enlargement, sperm enhancement, etc.
Hate Crime Laws Give Certain. It has also been suggested that, in effect, this equality is relatively meaningless, because non-minorities are so much more rarely the victims of hate crimes, and that, therefore, these laws protect and benefit minorities more than they protect or benefit non- minorities. Ironically, the accurate analysis of this observation is precisely backwards: If anything, that reality only reinforces the absolute need for laws that prohibit racially motivated crimes.
The fact of the matter is that minorities are much more likely to be the victims of racial hatred than are non-minorities, and that non- minorities are more often the perpetrators of racially motivated crimes than are individuals from minority backgrounds. Certainly, there are instances of racially motivated crimes perpetrated by…… [Read More]. Many conservatives believe that the Anti- Establishment Clause prohibits only the actual establishment of a national religion in the manner of the English Crown.
To them, the right to freedom of religion is all that the First Amendment guarantees, not the right to be free from religion Dershowitz, p. Luckily for those who consider themselves atheists and agnostics, the Supreme Court has interpreted the First Amendment to include the separation of church and state much more broadly, because under the conservative interpretation, the government might, in principle, be able to require some religious affiliation of its citizens provided it did not specify any particular religious faith.
That issue has arisen numerous times and in many different forms over the years, including whether or not public schools may require recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance with the words "under God" or "moments of private reflection" intended for prayer during school…… [Read More]. Thomas Jefferson Calls for Religious. The Bill of Rights mainly declares the civil rights and freedoms that American citizens are entitled to including the ones we hold most dear including freedom of religion, of speech, and of press.
Others, like the right to a speedy trial, have also become part of the fabric of the American psyche. The document has no stated author but James Madison is credited with at least partial authorship.
Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Banneker was one of the first African-Americans who was recognized as more than a slave. In this letter, he disparages slavery by pointing out to his reader that the institution goes against everything that Christianity and American values represent. Although his letter is compelling, it would not be for another century until slavery was abolished and even then, half-heartedly.
The stated audience for the document is just one man: Charles Tilly Defines Social Movements. Policy reforms split movement coalitions, and fracture and demobilize movements. Because participating groups enter social movements with a range of goals, it is not surprising that they would view acceptable outcomes differently. Coalition dynamics are inherently unstable, as participants are constantly aware of the changing viability and value of particular alliances.
In liberal polities, where political institutions are relatively permeable, coalitions are particularly fluid. A very recent example illustrates this point. Whereas laboratory research on the human genome rarely gets much public attention or understanding, periodic decision windows offer an invitation for concerned groups to weigh in. The decision about whether to fund research on human stem cell lines revisits, and reconfigures, old coalitions from the abortion debate.
Research scientists, absent en bloc from the abortion debate, weighed in heavily on the question of stem cell research, mobilizing in their behalf, victims of a range of diseases that might be…… [Read More]. Maritime Piracy and Terrorism in. The Caribbean trade routes are of particular interest to this discussion given their proximity to the United States continental mainland and their historical appeal to the activities and organization of pirates.
According to Mitchell, "the Caribbean island chain stretches for miles in a convex arch from the Bahamas past the south east point of Florida and downward to the…… [Read More]. Universal Criminal Jurisdiction When a. This is not a new development -- international law had long recognised universal jurisdiction for piracy and slavery, for example -- but it marks an extension of the principle, in a modified form, into a new subject area' emphasis added. In fact, Goodwin points out that, 'For hundreds of years, the world has allowed any nation-state to exercise universal jurisdiction over high seas piracy.
It has been almost universally assumed that allowing states to do this was legitimate. For example, Shulman reports that, "The characterization of certain actors as pirates and certain terrorist acts…… [Read More]. Law Enforcement - Threat Assessment. For example, the motorized wheelchair elevator of the transport vehicle may take equally long in both directions but the protectee need not be on scene while the elevator platform descends.
By delaying the exit of the protectee from the departure location until the transport vehicle elevator is already in the down position and prepared for immediate ascent, the protection agent can reduce the protectee's exposure my more than half in comparison to positioning the protectee outside the transport vehicle while the wheelchair lift elevator descends into the bottom position. The prospect of protecting a wheelchair- bound protectee necessarily adds at least one agent to the protective protocol because an agent rather than a non-agent assistant or nurse must control the wheelchair; but the rear position eliminates that agent from any traditional position as a protective shield.
In general, protectees with delicate medical conditions who require perpetual care necessarily…… [Read More]. Ohio Corrections Through Just Desserts. This highlights one of the clearest philosophical drawbacks for a correctional focus which is geared toward incapacitation. Indeed, we might regard this as an example where 'just desserts' might be an approach affiliated with the overlooked demands of Pittman's case.
Particularly, we can see by the language which was used to convict him, the Pittman's case incited an interest in incapacitation based on the sense that his crimes presented a clear threat to society were he not contained.
In the case of Pittman, we may make the argument that his crimes are significant enough to warrant the use of incapacitation. However, from a precedent standpoint, it is a disturbing indication of the individual and systemic flexibility given to members of the judiciary to evaluate the viability of trying a minor as an adult. The clear psychological, emotional and experiential differences between developing and developed individuals suggests that there is a…… [Read More].
Criminal Justice - Systematic Problem. Equal protection is a fundamental constitutional protection, that in modern times, guarantees the equal effect of law to all persons. In that regard, the Supreme Court has established specific suspect classes of individuals, such as membership in a minority race, whose rights to equal protection must be guarded most scrupulously, primarily because the need to do so has been more than adequately demonstrated by aspects of relatively recent American history.
According to criminologists and researchers who have conducted studies of the impact of criminal laws in general, and of capital punishment in particular, criminal defendants who are members of minority races as well as those who are poor are statistically much more likely to receive the death penalty in comparison with non- minority and wealthier criminals convicted of identical death-penalty-eligible offenses Schmalleger, ; Zalman, This discrepancy suggests that capital punishment in the U.
Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism and crime rates in general conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration. Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests.
Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.
Limitations on ADA Requirements: The ADA does not require employers to provide accommodations that pose an undue hardship on the employer or the business entity. In that regard, the ADA analysis of what accommodations are unduly difficult or expensive depends on specific factors such as the relative size and budget of the employing entity as well as the nature of the business, products, or services provided by that business.
The employer is not required to provide accommodations that would decrease the quality or the volume of the goods or services it provides, nor is the employer required to furnish specific personal items such as blood monitoring equipment, glasses, or hearing devices.
Generally, the employer is only required to provide reasonable accommodations after…… [Read More]. U S Government Discuss the The Department can then choose to act upon such intelligence by identifying and possibly detaining foreign and domestic individuals who would act violently toward the U. With the development of the Department of Homeland Security, the nation might then feel more safe and therefore be less affected by terrorism, when it is curtailed or limited by actions, based on collaborative intelligence.
The Department can and should act to determine the threat level of individuals who are entering the U. For the purpose of terrorist acts or acts that would support or further terrorist motives and support.
This may mean some rights of individuals might seem challenged, mainly through security measures and yet it should ultimately limit the number of individual acts that take place, to further a terrorist cause, before it takes many lives.
The department of…… [Read More]. The Challenges and Prospects in. And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold War atmosphere, Buchanan speaks of the invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an insurrection inside its own territory.
The abuses which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some level of genocide.
Detecting Deception the Detection of. In that regard, the future applications of Ekman's principles and techniques for identifying concealment of emotions and deception of intentions may improve the accuracy, efficiency, and speed of facial analysis.
In general, computer applications are much more capable of analyzing such information accurately than even the best-trained human beings Ekman, Deliberate attempts to employ anti-detection techniques to counter the methods of detection introduced by Ekman may indeed be possible with respect to human beings, however, the increased precision with which computers perform the same fundamental analyses of facial expressions is likely much more difficult to circumvent through deliberate facial manipulations.
First, the highly complex mathematical formulae through which computer facial scanning software perform the same analyses of facial expressions use much more precise objective data than those capable of being considered by human beings Safir, Second, whereas human detection relies almost exclusively on the examination of each individual…… [Read More].
Discrimination Dean Moore's Primary Responsibility. Hall by publishing the truth in any letter of recommendation Dershowitz, In reality, Dean Moore's refusal was not the result of any prejudicial or otherwise impermissible basis.
Nevertheless, the dean's strongest possible position would be to offer to write the requested letter but to inform Ms. Hall that any such letter would necessarily, as a matter of social responsibility and sound public policy, have to include a description of the circumstances of Ms. Hall's departure from NBSU in conjunction with an objective and fair description of her actual academic performance and technical competence.
Even if her refusal to provide any letter is justified, defending a discrimination lawsuit is expensive and potentially damaging to the institution. On the other hand, there is no such thing as a legal claim arising from someone's refusal to lie and any suit brought by Ms. Hall based on the dean's insistence on full disclosure…… [Read More]. Wiretaps and Electronic Surveillance Wiretapping. Works Cited Blanton, Thomas. Wiretap debate deja vu. Retrieved April 22, at http: Lawmaker is said to have aided lobbyists.
The New York Times. Wiretapping and electronic surveillance. Retrieved April 22, A…… [Read More]. This has been cited as a primary cause for the readily available guns in nearby New York City, and despite the fact that most Virginians are in favor of closing this loophole and enforcing stricter gun control, the National Rifle Association has been instrumental, through lobbying efforts and campaign contributions, to have officials elected that agree with their constituents in most instances but side with the NRA in keeping the sale of guns through gun shows legal NY Times This instance also helps to illustrate the mechanisms at work in the government that allow the NRA's continued benefit at public expense.
Research has shown that the National Rifle Association can be extremely effective in hotly contested races for congressional and state-level seats, however,…… [Read More]. Military Ethics -- Smoking Within. Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible.
Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs.
Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care. Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians.
In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life. Political clientelism is basically considered as the distribution of discriminatory benefits to people or groups in exchange for political support. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange that is always characterized by uneven balance of power between those involved and a sense of compulsion.
Throughout history, this term has continued to create confusion and controversy due to the broad and varied range of political exchanges that it contains. Since it's a way with which the uneven and hierarchical exchanges of a feudal society are described, clientelism is also a means of describing the relationships between patrons and clients. The theory of democracy explains that voters have the right of making their choices freely, particularly during political elections.
This concept has created new platforms for representation and political accountability as well as the benefits for sustaining and cultivating clientelistic bonds Szwarcberg, In places with weak democracies, clients…… [Read More].
Death Penalty -- it Doesn't. On page Bannister points out that outside of China, the numbers show a decrease in individuals being put to death through capital punishment. In , the number of reported executions dropped to from in ; also, since more than 30 nations have "put an end to this cruel and inhuman practice" Bannister, Conclusion The Chief Editor of Criminal Law Review, Chen Xingliang, writes that there is a consensus among the scholars that contribute to his publication; and those scholars "…are in favor of strict limitations on the death penalty in order to eventually abolish it" p.
Navy, using this advantage to blockade the South from outside sources of supplies. In addition to better economic sources, the North's population superceded the South's by three to one, One third of the South's population being African American.
Though it seemed that the North would take a hasty victory over the South, the South had advantages of its own. The South was on the defensive; it only had to resist being conquered, made easier by the South's expansive size. The troops would also be on their own territory commanded by experienced officers such as Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and Albert Johnston. The North often had inferior commanders while Lincoln experimented with generals.
Jefferson Davis also seemed to have advantages over Lincoln. He had an extensive military background as well as a lot of political experience. Lincoln, on the other hand, had little political and military experience, but somehow managed to prove himself a better war leader than Davis. These advantages caused the war to be drawn out, as the South struggled to stay in the war. After the first battle of Bull Run in July 21, , the North was forced to retreat. Please contact our custom service if you have any questions concerning our service.
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- American Civil Liberties Union The American Civil Liberties Union is an organization which takes on the issues of concern to the American public and any violations of their rights, or liberties, including discrimination.
Essay: Civil liberties For many years, gaining equality has been an objective of many blacks in America. Having endured slavery, discrimination, and constant denial of their fundamental rights by white Americans, blacks began standing up for their rights and demanding those freedoms delegated in the Declaration of Independence and the .
Civil Liberties During WWII many civil liberties were affected and felt by the American people; some of these decisions include new policies . Civil liberty, as opposed to natural liberty, refers to the liberty enjoyed by man in society. Freedom in isolation is meaningless. Freedom, to be real, involves the capacity to do or enjoy things in common with others, and no individual can permanently separate his own good from the common good.
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Essay. The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery and African American slaves gained their freedom during the Civil War; however, this did not mean they were fully integrated into American society. After the . Civil Liberties (And how they differ from civil rights) "If the fires of freedom and civil liberties burn low in other lands, they must be made brighter in our own. If in other lands the press and books and literature of all kinds are censored, we must redouble our efforts here to keep them free.