Basically, consumers develop certain expectations about the ability of the product to fulfil instrumental and symbolic needs. Taking no action, switching brands, products, or stores, and warning friends are all common reactions to a negative purchase evaluation.
After the evaluation process and, where applicable, the complaint process, consumers have some degree of repurchase motivation. There may be a strong motive to avoid the brand, a willingness to repurchase it some of the time, or some level of brand loyalty, which is a willingness to repurchase coupled with a psychological commitment to the brand. Attention occurs when the stimulus activities one or more of the sensory receptors, and the resulting sensations go into the brain for processing.
Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to stimuli that have been attended to consumers must learn almost everything related to being a consumer: Learning is defined as any change in the content or organization of long-term memory.
The strength of learning depends on: It proposes five levels of motivation: Consumers are often aware of and will admit t the motives causing their behavior.
Because of the large number of motives and the many different situations that consumers face. Motivational conflict can occur, in approach-approach conflict, approach-avoidance conflict and avoidance-avoidance conflict.
The personality of a consumer guides and directs the behavior chosen for accomplishing goals in different situations. The relatively long-lasting personal quality that allows individuals to respond to the world around them. Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrollable feelings that affect behavior, occur when environmental events or mental processes trigger physiological changes. Attitude-change strategies can focus on affect, behavior, cognition or some combination of these.
The reference group is a group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior. Marketers have found three classification criteria-membership, degree of contact and attraction to be particular useful.
Groups that have frequent personal contact are primary groups, while those with limited interpersonal contact are called secondary groups. Group influence varies across situations. Informational influence occurs when individual conforms to group expectations to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
The physical surrounding there is absolutely good as well as every its franchise stores. As people walk in the store the first display table is displaying the newest clothing and shoes, very comfortable seats for people to try the shoes just opposite the shoes displaying shelf and the every corner for a certain kind of product like classical shoes, jackets, shirts and pants, and athlete series, mountain clamber series.
They have very high quality staff work in every store that makes consumers feel really good. Social surroundings are also involves in here, Steve said that he would rather buy if the stores are in the big shopping center. A pair of Timberland shoes is considering as the shopping product in the problem recognition also a extended decision making.
He did some compares ion works before he actually bought that RM shoes. Actually, he wanted to choose from 4 brands at the first time: Nike, Adidas, Converse all stars and Timberland.
But after he tried the Timberland he decided to buy it immediately, and several friends of him are wearing Timberland boots as well. He likes all kinds of timberland ads, he even feels those are the rest ads make him feel good. The disjunctive decision rule is used by him in the evaluation and selection of alternatives. The timberland shoes completely meet his expectation and performance quite well, he is very satisfied with it.
As a result, he said if his budget permits he will buy an other pair of same brand shoes, and he has the big interest in Timberland shoes that are newly introduced. Therefore, until here he has no dissatisfy with the shoes, and he has a kind of loyalty to the Timberland brand. And another thing has to mention here is the group influences also play an important part in his decision making, both from friends and family.
Steve belongs to a group of people they have the similar life quality lifestyle, habits, even the quite similar budget, and the same or higher education level.
He wants himself to be a mature man, in other words, he wants to be the same with others. You can also order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis or dissertation on Consumer Behavior topics from our online custom writing company which provides students with high-quality custom written papers. Nevertheless, demographics are important as consumer descriptors because they want to buy age, education, marital status, household composition Steve Wang as a full-time college student, he has no income right now.
Refer to table 2 3. Order a custom written paper of high quality Professional Writers only. Free Quote or Order now. The attitude towards abortion has always been and still is very controversial. It has, however, changed throughout the history of humanity: In addition, consumer behavior looks at the impacts that the processes of selection, purchasing, use, and disposal have on consumers and on society.
Consumer behavior studies the characteristics of individual consumers, by looking at variables such as demographics, psychographics and behavior, in an attempt to understand the consumer and his or her world.
Demographics include factors such as race, age, income, mobility travel time to work or number of vehicles available , educational attainment, home ownership, employment status and location.
Psychographics are attributes related to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. Behavioral variables include usage rate and loyalty. Consumer behavior also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general Perner, Consumer behavior is a subcategory of marketing that blends elements from economics, psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and other sciences, such as physiological psychology, biochemistry, and genetics.
Psychology — the study of individual behavior — was one of the earliest and most extensively used fields from which concepts have been borrowed. It has been said that the basic nature of consumer behavior is diversity: Although early related research can be traced back much further, the attempt to theorize consumer behavior began in , first looking at the type of behavioral processes consumers typically used in adopting new products; then addressing consumer problem-solving, buyer behavior, and buyer decision processes.
Subsequent research has looked into information processing of consumer choice, and the experiential consumer. Since the early s, research has been conducted in areas as wide and varied as deviant behavior, consumer perception, planned behavior, intention-behavior discrepancy, environmentally responsible behavior, consumer judgment, attitudes, dependence, international and cross-cultural consumer behavior, impulsive buying, personality-behavior relationships, the role of imagery, and social and political marketing issues.
Behavior occurs either for an individual on his or her own; for an individual in the context of a group where others in the group influence how a person behaves ; or for an organization where people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use.
The study of consumer behavior attempts to understand the buyer decision making process for individuals, groups and organizations. Consumer decision making comes about as an attempt to solve consumer problems, both major and minor. Clearly, such evangelism for a product or brand is invaluable to a company because it has the capacity to tangibly affect sales.
Authorship by Maja Kalauz also supported this notion. Consequently, establishing brand communities is extremely valuable for the business, and it is their initiative to ensure that it is valuable for the consumer as well. The pronounced influence of consumers who share strong associations with a given brand also works through deterring other brands from potentially entering that market.
Indeed, as brands develop communities of followers that strongly adhere to brand loyalty, potential competitors, are more inclined to shy away Thompson This pronounced influence of brand communities implies that brand loyalty is a significant aspect of consumer behavior that companies take into account when exploring new market opportunities. Brand loyalty also fosters a sense of less risk because their inclusiveness into a group that shares their beliefs is a form of validation.
This validation within a social group suffices in lowering the perceived risk because the community as a whole is practicing it. One example is motorcyclists who buy bikes from the same brand, say Harley Davidson, and ride together, forming a brand community. The community will favor their brand of motorcycle over all others, and it is likely that they would remain loyal to Harley Davidson. They might also come to perceive other brands of motorcycle as a risk because they do not have the same communal, established confidence in those competitors.
In other cases, the company itself will attempt to propagate a brand community. Facebook provides an interesting and complex example of that attempt. Facebook is essentially one large brand community. Competitors are often squeezed out of a burgeoning market because the Facebook brand provides the largest community, and therefore instills the most confidence in the consumer, who will become more averse to competitors. Social implications are extremely relevant to a discussion of consumer behavior.
The West is already firmly established as a consumer society, and other countries worldwide are following in suit. Perhaps there is even a mass cultural movement towards consumerism.
Economic circumstances are certainly not to be ignored; however, they apply more to risk aversion than they do brand loyalty, while social conditions implicate both. Surely, the economic foundations of risk aversion and decision making based on notions of basic economics do not apply Chapman et al.
Instead, brand loyalty can be used to establish individuality, as well as to form consumer communities. In both cases, the consumer consciously or subconsciously attempts to reduce perceived risks through consistency and commitment.
Brand loyalty also operates as a cultural framework whereby consumers feel much more comfortable with using a single brand for long periods of time. Though Hofstede refers to general social structures, it can be related to consumer behavior because consumer behavior also operates on both levels.
On one hand, consumers use brand loyalties to establish an individual social identity, and on the other hand, they form collective units to strengthen those loyalties, and alleviate risk aversion. When analyzing consumer behavior, it is important to consider how and why consumers take more or less risks.
Brand loyalty is in many ways an attempt to alleviate risk, and a consumer loyal to one brand may be uncomfortable with uncertainty surrounding that product, and therefore makes a singular brand choice and sticks with it Hofstede. This surely reflects the cultural means in which individuals make lifelong decisions for using certain products and services.
By referring to Hofstede, the article was able to contextualize its cross-cultural examination of brands, and their sway on consumer decisions. Consequently, international brands have to rely on pre-existing theories in order to evaluate the potential brand loyalty and risk aversion of a new customer base. The access to global data with respect to market research and online behavioral patterns also validates the notion that pre-existing patterns can serve as forms of actionable insight into how a new market will potentially respond.
Brands are deeply concerned with the loyalty of their customers. What can they do to generate and maintain brand loyalty amongst consumers? How is this achieved? Can widespread brand loyalty allow a brand to survive and even flourish in when confronted by obstacles?
Marketers must ask these questions if they desire to use tendencies in consumer behavior to their competitive advantage. Studies have provided a few different approaches to establishing a solid base of loyal consumers.
The author, David Aaker, used cars as a brief example: Winning the brand preference competition for the Cadillac brand, involves making sure that Cadillac is preferred to Lexus and BMW. That usually means being superior in at least one of the dimensions defining the category or subcategory and being at least as good as competitors in the rest Surely, excellence within one specific sphere of a product is essential in differentiating itself from other competitors.
Moreover, in the case of SUVs it could be anything from horsepower to fuel efficiency, second-row legroom, etc. However, according to Aaker, this method is generally ineffective because the customer is not always willing to do the due diligence and separate specific distinctions between similar products, even if integral differences exist. Brand loyalty is rarely propagated by a small selective feature, and the consumer is not likely to commit to Cadillac vs.
The study of consumer behavior involves elements of economics, the social sciences, and the physical sciences. An endless and diverse field of research and applications, consumer behavior.
Part 1: Executive Summary This research paper explains the decision making process, the internal and external factors that have influences a "high involvement".
The paper will also focus on how some consumer behavior changes will relate to culture, situational factors, and perception of the consumers, attitude, motivation socialization, adoption, and diffusion and their implications on the market segmentation, price, product, promotion, and place strategies of . This sample research paper written on consumer behavior will help improve your understanding of branding and risk aversion in marketing.5/5(1).
Consumer Behavior Paper University of Phoenix MKT/ Consumer Behavior Paper Marketing is the managed development where services and goods flow from concept to the consumer. In business terms marketing is concerned with fulfilling the consumer’s wants and needs. Future studies of the consumer behavior research literature can also investigate authorship of the articles, including which authors have had what impact on the discipline and which scholars from which institutions have been productive in terms of consumer behavior publications.