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❶Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data. In natural sciences and social sciences , quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.

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This article is a part of the guide:
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research

In Quantitative Research, researchers tend to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. This is because Quantitative Research is objective in approach in the sense that it only seeks precise measurements and analysis of target concepts to answer his inquiry. Qualitative research , Quantitative research.

Debates have been ongoing, tackling which method is better than the other. The reason why this remains unresolved until now is that, each has its own strengths and weaknesses which actually vary depending upon the topic the researcher wants to discuss.

If your study aims to find out the answer to an inquiry through numerical evidence, then you should make use of the Quantitative Research. However, if in your study you wish to explain further why this particular event happened, or why this particular phenomenon is the case, then you should make use of Qualitative Research.

Some studies make use of both Quantitative and Qualitative Research, letting the two complement each other. If your study aims to find out, for example, what the dominant human behavior is towards a particular object or event and at the same time aims to examine why this is the case, it is then ideal to make use of both methods.

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Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Research Design". Related articles Related pages: Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Leave this field blank: A good example of a qualitative research method would be unstructured interviews which generate qualitative data through the use of open questions.

This allows the respondent to talk in some depth, choosing their own words. Notice that qualitative data could be much more than just words or text.

Photographs, videos, sound recordings and so on, can be considered qualitative data. Qualitative research is endlessly creative and interpretive. The researcher does not just leave the field with mountains of empirical data and then easily write up his or her findings. Because of the time and costs involved, qualitative designs do not generally draw samples from large-scale data sets. The problem of adequate validity or reliability is a major criticism.

Because of the subjective nature of qualitative data and its origin in single contexts, it is difficult to apply conventional standards of reliability and validity. For example, because of the central role played by the researcher in the generation of data, it is not possible to replicate qualitative studies. Also, contexts, situations, events, conditions, and interactions cannot be replicated to any extent nor can generalizations be made to a wider context than the one studied with any confidence.

The time required for data collection, analysis and interpretation are lengthy. Analysis of qualitative data is difficult and expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data, and great care must be taken when doing so, for example, if looking for symptoms of mental illness.

Because of close researcher involvement, the researcher gains an insider's view of the field. This allows the researcher to find issues that are often missed such as subtleties and complexities by the scientific, more positivistic inquiries.

Qualitative descriptions can play the important role of suggesting possible relationships, causes, effects and dynamic processes. Qualitative research uses a descriptive, narrative style; this research might be of particular benefit to the practitioner as she or he could turn to qualitative reports in order to examine forms of knowledge that might otherwise be unavailable, thereby gaining new insight.

Quantitative research gathers data in a numerical form which can be put into categories, or in rank order, or measured in units of measurement. This type of data can be used to construct graphs and tables of raw data. Research is used to test a theory and ultimately support or reject it. Experiments typically yield quantitative data, as they are concerned with measuring things.

However, other research methods, such as controlled observations and questionnaires can produce both quantitative information. For example, a rating scale or closed questions on a questionnaire would generate quantitative data as these produce either numerical data or data that can be put into categories e. Experimental methods limit the possible ways in which a research participant can react to and express appropriate social behavior. Findings are therefore likely to be context-bound and simply a reflection of the assumptions which the researcher brings to the investigation.

Statistics help us turn quantitative data into useful information to help with decision making. We can use statistics to summarise our data, describing patterns, relationships, and connections. Statistics can be descriptive or inferential.

Descriptive statistics help us to summarise our data whereas inferential statistics are used to identify statistically significant differences between groups of data such as intervention and control groups in a randomised control study.

Quantitative experiments do not take place in natural settings. In addition, they do not allow participants to explain their choices or the meaning of the questions may have for those participants Carr, Poor knowledge of the application of statistical analysis may negatively affect analysis and subsequent interpretation Black, Variability of data quantity: Large sample sizes are needed for more accurate analysis.

Small scale quantitative studies may be less reliable because of the low quantity of data Denscombe, This also affects the ability to generalize study findings to wider populations.

The researcher might miss observing phenomena because of focus on theory or hypothesis testing rather than on the theory of hypothesis generation. Sophisticated software removes much of the need for prolonged data analysis, especially with large volumes of data involved Antonius, Quantitative data is based on measured values and can be checked by others because numerical data is less open to ambiguities of interpretation. Hypotheses can also be tested because of the used of statistical analysis Antonius,


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While defining quantitative and qualitative research based on their uses and purposes may be considered a practical approach for researcher, the difference actually lies on .

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In the world of research, there are two general approaches to gathering and reporting information: qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach to research is focused on understanding a phenomenon from a closer perspective.

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Quantitative Methods Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews of documents for types of themes Surveys, structured interviews & observations, and reviews of records or documents for numeric information. Qualitative research is inductive and does not require a hypothesis in order to start the research process. Let's take a closer look at this important difference, and dig a bit deeper into three key terms that help define quantitative and qualitative research.

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Multiple dimensions of social research methods are covered in this text, primarily the methodology behind qualitative and quantitative approaches. Also covered are topics on data measurement, theory, sampling, the literature review, and research report writing/5(23). Qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.