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❶PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by scientific and humanistic curiosity, the desire to contribute to the academic community, service to others, or personal development.

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Including student tips and advice. You must be logged in to post a comment. Law Dissertation Topics rodrigo March 10, 1 Comment. While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.

The European Research Council decided in that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree. Depending on the university, doctoral students Doktoranden can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification Qualifikationsnachweise.

Depending on the doctoral regulations Promotionsordnung of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research.

In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers. Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs "graduate colleges" , which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies.

The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required. In , the median age of new Ph. The degree of Candidate of Sciences Russian: According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries" , in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland , should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this Ph.

As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications ISCED , [68] par. The Dottorato di ricerca research doctorate , abbreviated to "Dott. While the standard Ph. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Dottorato di ricerca in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in , [83] [84] referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.

Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a " laurea magistrale " master degree or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations. The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.

A doctoral degree Pol. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of Ph.

PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science.

A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine. The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in and in Denmark-Norway in and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.

The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British higher doctorates D. Denmark introduced an American-style Ph. Holders of a ph. In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University 's Faculty of Philosophy in In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil. The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines.

Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the ph. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.

The Swedish term fil. Singapore has six universities offering doctoral study opportunities: They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document. All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years.

The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by her or his "thesis director or directors ", the study will be presented to a panel of 3 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent.

This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes. The concesion is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave.

Universities admit applicants to Ph. Oxford abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; these are in all other respects equivalent. This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the Ph.

If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree as is the case at the King's College London and University of Manchester.

In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree. In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees. This implies that the fourth year of Ph.

Research Council funding is sometimes ' earmarked ' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes.

The availability of funding in many disciplines means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. Since , there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres.

Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence. There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students.

With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare. Since the early s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving Ph.

Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the Ph. These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and Ph. There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated Ph. These courses include a Master of Research MRes in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects.

As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and Ph. These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard Ph. In the United Kingdom, Ph. Doctor of Letters or D. Doctor of Science , which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted and usually published research.

However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate. Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates D. Prof or ProfD , which are the same level as Ph. These are most notably in the fields of engineering Eng. Psych , occupational psychology D.

These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,—60,word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a Ph. In the United States, the Ph. There are universities in the United States that award the Ph. The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary , a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge.

The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized. Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation , which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis.

Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline. Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph.

The number of Ph. In , US universities awarded 8, Ph. Graduate schools increasingly [ citation needed ] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.

Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program if it is short or for most of it.

At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise Ph. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry Indeed, Dinham and Scott have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a Ph.

Wisker has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the Ph. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black ; cited in Wisker, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see PHD. List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. Education in Australia and Australian Qualifications Framework. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards one or more specific regions.

Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page. Doctorates in the United Kingdom. Graduate science education in the United States.

Doctorat Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doctor of Philosophy PhD China: Licentiate , Magister , Ph. Filosofian tohtori and any degree of tohtori France: Dottorato di ricerca Japan: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Mexico: Doctor of Philosophy Ph. Magister , Licentiate , doctorates traditionally considered higher degrees , Ph.

Doktora United Arab Emirates: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Ukraine: Journal of Further and Higher Education. Retrieved 27 January The History of the University of Oxford: Very few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by when the Reverend E.

Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen's, proposed, as the Oxford Magazine put it, that the University 'should divert the stream' of American aspirants to the German universities' degree of philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation. Studies in Higher Education. Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe.

A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. The Higher Education Academy, p. A History of the University in Europe: Steven Turner, "The growth of professorial research in Prussia, to A Theory Concerning the Dissertation".

The Journal of Higher Education. UK Council for Graduate Education. Historical Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec". How the PhD came to Britain: A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education.

German influences on education in the United States to A Centennial Salute to Yale, —". Journal of Higher Education. Higher Education in Transition: A History of American Colleges and Universities. Geiger, "Research, graduate education, and the ecology of American universities: Goodchild and Harold S.

Veysey, The emergence of the American university is the standard history; see pp — Doctorates in the 20th Century. Archived from the original on 10 February The academic revolution ch 1. This is called the 'New Route Ph.

For a list of programmes and institutions offering the 'new route' see http: These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as Ph. Categories , Wageningen University; Ph. Agreement reached with Glasgow for 'sandwich' Ph. Retrieved 25 December The Chronicle of Higher Education. News , 2 October No longer a guaranteed ticket to an academic career, the Ph. The Foreigner's Guide to German Universities: Archived from the original on 7 May Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 25 August Information about requirements and procedures for higher education and VET providers".

Retrieved 20 July Trends in diversification of post-secondary education IIEP research papers. Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring countries Archived 13 May at the Wayback Machine..

Archived from the original on 4 November Archived from the original on 29 September Traditionally, this degree, which was considered a prerequisite for obtaining top positions within academia, was earned rather late in life, often after one had passed 50 years of age. Rapporter, evalueringer og anbefalinger — Archived 19 July at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 13 March Protocolo y Etiqueta" in Spanish. Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 12 April How much does it cost?

Conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong". Economics of Education Review.

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QUESTION 1 Nicola and May are partners in a business which operates a second-hand book shop. They have two employees working for the business. The shop is located in leased premises. The business is doing well and has been profitable for them. An opportunity has arisen to purchase two second-hand book shops in nearby suburbs. Continue reading "COMPANY LAW".

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Labor and Employment Law: Introduction: Human resource departments are responsible for effectively, legally, fairly, and consistently attempting to maximize an organization’s return on its human capital investment while minimizing financial risk. Given: As director of human resources at Company X, a company with over 75 employees, you are .

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“A company is covered by the veil of incorporation and this veil remains in place except in exceptional circumstances. Discuss the Directors’ potential personal liabilities for acts of Fraud and mismanagement under both UAE and US company laws” Increasingly stringent legislative requirements, together with the enforcement of existing standards . Company Law Explain what the following statement means, to critically discuss this statement and indicate whether or not you agree with this statement, and you should provide reasons why you hold such position. Project description Subject: Company Law Essay Requirement: A UK limited company is considered to be an artificial legal .

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