In terms of system theory, the ecosphere represents a super system. Ecosystems may be visualized as 3-dimensional cutouts from the ecosphere: The integrated unit may or may not be isolated but it must have definable limits within which there are integrated functions.
Unlike physiologists who study various functions in individual plants or animals, the ecologists study them at the ecosystem level. A real ecologist always tries to maintain a holistic or ecosystem perspective of the process being studied by him.
Biocoenosis and bioecocoenosis are roughly equivalent to community and ecosystem respectively. Biotopes are the physical environments in which such communities exist.
According to Lamotte , it is this network of multiple interactions that permits us to define the ecosystem completely. Barrett proposed the new term noosystem to define a basic unit of study encompassing biological, physical, social, economic, and cultural influences on the total system. Not only are the resources limited but there are limits both to the rates at which the environment can receive and recycle wastes and to its capacity for storing them in a suitable form.
Complexity is a third characteristic of any ecosystem. It is because of such complexity that human intervention in or the meddling with a balanced ecosystem with the objective of producing some desirable effect, also often brings forth some additional, unexpected and undesirable side effect. In certain countries, e. The chief objective of an experimental ecologist or eco-physiologist is to understand the mass and energy turnover within different ecosystems and to estimate quantitatively the primary and secondary production.
Ecology may also be defined as a system-theory oriented synthesis of both earth and life sciences, and can be studied by developing suitable and comprehensive flux-analytical and hierarchical medelling approaches. As in most other branches of biology, the descriptive aspects of ecology were the main focus of attention during the early s but during the past few decades the trend of research has shifted to the experimental aspects. Greig-Smith has pointed out the limitations and inadequacies of these methods for estimating spatial patterns.
The data obtained by laying quadrats depend on the quadrat size used. Transect methods are rather inefficient and give reliable information only for the small area actually sampled. Plotless techniques give useful information only for the nearest-neighbours, and measurements of distances to second, third, or more remote neighbours consume much time in the field.
In recent years it was realised that ecology is an interdisciplinary science, though its body of knowledge lies in biology yet its interaction with other disciplines are quite prominent. Human ecology is a social science that studies the relationship between man and its environment. It studies the relationship between human biological factors and the natural environment. Social ecology studies the relations among natural environment, population, technology and society.
The activities of various organisms in the environment which interact with each other are so finely balanced that they are in equilibrium in a steady state. This is known as ecological balance. The principal causes for ecological degradation are drastic changes in the technology of agricultural and industries production and transportation. The word is perceived notes a collection of isolated objects but as a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent.
It views humans as above or outside of nature as the source of all values and prescribe only instrumental or use value to nature. Industrial process resembles those of a natural eco system where in materials and energy circulates continuously in a complex web of interaction. The structural adaptations and functional adjustments of organisms to their physical environment, i.
The development of mathematical models to relate intersection of parameters and to predict the effects. The main objective of the study of ecology is to apply the knowledge gained from ecological study to safeguard against disasters caused by: Two important subdivisions of ecology are recognised by ecologists, these are: It is concerned with the ecology of an individual species and its population. On the basis of the kind of environment or habitat, ecology has been sub-divided into the following branches: Examples of major communities are: It is a smaller community which is not a self-sustaining unit.
It is dependent on other communities for its existence. Structure of a community can be studied by determining the density, frequency and abundance of species. Usually a community has one or more species which occur in large number. Such species are called dominants and the community is often named after them. The community consists of different groups of plants and animals of different species, may be large and small, may belong to one life from or another but are essentially growing in a uniform environment.
This includes study of various life processes respiration, growth, reproduction etc. The recurrence of these important life processes at regular intervals in a year and their manifestation in nature is termed periodicity. Natural forest communities possess a number of layers or storeys or strata related to the height of plants, for example, tall trees, smaller trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers form the different strata.
This phenomenon in a plant community is called stratification. These are marginal zones and are easily recognisable. Usually, in ecotones, the variety of one species is larger than in any of the adjacent communities. A phenomenon of increased variety and intensity of plants at the common junction is called edge-effect and is essentially due to wider range of suitable environmental conditions. Different species of animals and plants fulfil different functions in the ecological complex.
The role of each is spoken of as its ecological niche i. We can also say that ecological niche is a small habitat within a habitat in which only a single species can survive. Communities are not static but progressively change with time in a definite manner. This change of the plant and animal communities in an orderly sequence in an area is called ecological or biotic succession.
Read this essay to learn about Ecology! The term “Ecology” was coined by Earnst Haeckel in It is derived from the Greek words Oikos- home + logos- study. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment.
Maryland's Ecology and Environment - Maryland is the 42nd largest state, making it one of the smaller states in America. It is located in the South Atlantic region on the United States eastern seaboard.
Essay # 1. Introduction to Ecology. Every organism invariably depends upon the environment and other organism for its existence. It either eats other organisms or is eaten by others and competes with other for the necessities of life such as food, shelter and mate survival requires group association. Ecology is the study of interrelationship between living organisms and their environment. Life and environment are interdependent. The plant and animal life is effected by various environmental Related Articles: Short Essay for School Students on Our Ecosystem.
Essays Related to Ecology essay. 1. ".ecology enters religion as a central concept in two major ways. In a movement for the preservation of nature, that is, religious ecological preservation, and as a perspective and a method in the study of religion, or ecology of religion" In Christianity, the concept of a transcendent God has been used /5(10). Comprehensive Essay on “Ecology” Article shared by. Ecology is one of the most popular areas of biology. Even the layman and the general public are greatly interested in this subject in view of the problems of environmental pollution, human survival and conservation of natural resources.