Three Head teachers of schools, six mathematics teachers, three heads of the mathematics department and one District officer were interviewed and thirty pupils responded to questionnaires. The District education officer was automatically selected because of his or her responsibilities and relevance to the study. In selecting pupils for sampling, a hat method was used where by pupils were asked to write their names and put the names in a hat according to gender.
A boy was picked by the researcher at random and was asked to pick five names of girls in the hat, one at a time likewise a girl was randomly chosen to pick five names of boys in a hat and the chosen pupils were the ones representing a sample at a school.
Five girls and five boys represented a school. For anonymity purposes selected schools were named A, B and C. The names of the participants were not written on the questionnaires. From there she visited the District office to sought permission to visit the schools and proceeded to the schools to collect data.
The interviews were conducted and the questionnaires were administered and collected immediately after completion. It took the researcher three days to complete the process of data collection.
On the issue of reliability the researcher followed proper research procedures and observed the ethics. Anonymity on the questionnaires was highly observed so as to allow the respondents to give accurate information. As for validity the researcher made sure that the methods used complemented each other.
Under the discussion the following topics were dealt with, research design, research instruments, population, sample and sampling techniques, research ethics, data collection procedure and data analysis. The next chapter will look at data analysis and presentation of data collected.
Cengage Learning Fowler, F. Volume 33, 7 p Leedy, P. Planning and Design, New York, Macmillan. The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods. Volume 1 and 2. The Sage encyclopeadia of qualitative research methods.
Journal for the theory of social behavior. Volume 34 2 p Walliman, N. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays e. In some countries e. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.
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For example an essay on Macbeth can be written very differently, depending on your essay question and your methodology. Macbeth is covered with superstitions, why not to study them? The topic is very interesting. But how are you going to approach it? Are you going to rely on some studies in your essay or do the research of your own?
What sources are you going to use? It is known that Shakespeare based his play on some other sources. So your essay may address the question how these sources were used in Macbeth.
Research methodology involves the collection and analysis of materials relevant to the study. Thus, in all of these cases there are 4 basic ways to deal with the essay methodology:.
The type of research method that you follow will be much determined by the type of study. Depending on the purpose, your research method may take different forms. Some of the examples of research methods are: Also, based on the source of materials for the research and study, you may have primary research and secondary research.
But how do you know which research methods should you use? Decide your purpose of research first; then the purpose itself decides the method. The type of research method that you follow is determined by the type of study. Data collecting methods may be different. For example, you may mention that:. In this case you should specify how many people you have interviewed, what did you ask them, and who these people were.
If you have a questionnaire you need to specify which type of questions did you use, who your respondents were and how did you distribute it. Though we live in the information age, not all information is available on-line. So, when you are doing a research paper on history a visit to an archive will provide you with unique material for analysis. Data collecting methodology also includes the explanation of your choice of sources. Each paragraph should contain one point, an explanation of what is meant by that point and an example of the point in a study or text.
These points should all be shown to relate to your thesis, and they should connect to each other logically. The points listed in the main body of the essay should build on one another to create a full picture of your argument.
It is also important to include some contradictory evidence. Although you are presenting an argument, it is unreasonable to only include evidence that supports your thesis because it makes your argument seem biased and even poorly researched.
Summarize the argument presented in the body of the essay within the conclusion, and explain how it supports your thesis. Writing a concise run-through of the points you have made may seem difficult, but is important to remember that you are only re-stating information already provided. Anybody who is reading your conclusion has most likely read your entire essay and will understand all the ideas without any additional explanation assuming everything has been explained clearly in the body and introduction.
Re-state your thesis, and discuss the implications of your research and any additional research that could be performed in the area.
The introductory paragraph with the thesis takes up one paragraph, the body of the essay makes up three and the conclusion is a final paragraph.
Essay methods are time-consuming and difficult to administer. Appraisers often find the essay technique more demanding than methods such as rating scales. The techniques greatest advantage - freedom of expression - is also its greatest handicap.
An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative. To do this you need to work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph. The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to .
Though preparing an essay involves defined methods, it is seldom revealed within the essay. But it does not mean that you cannot include essay methodology in your essay. While writing a Frankenstein essay or a Macbeth essay, you definitely would have used some method to . Free teaching methods papers, essays, and research papers.
If you need to write about education, sample essay on teaching methods will be a great helper for you. Check the sample essay and use it for your benefit. Writing argumentative essays requires an understanding of the subject matter and an opinion on the question that has been posed by the essay title. Many different methods exist for writing an argumentative essay, but the generally accepted method is to explain your argument in a thesis paragraph (the introduction).