When Hale asks him to recite his commandments, the only one he forgets is adultery. The fact that he forgets only this commandment shows that he is trying extremely hard to repress his guilt.
This is irony of the same type that I discussed in the overview of this theme. Salem is under attack from the hysteria that is encouraged by the same people who seek to keep imaginary supernatural demons at bay.
In Act 3, Hale continues to make ironic statements about the existence of concrete proof for the accusations of witchcraft. Elizabeth is a victim of cruel irony in this Act when she is summoned to testify on the reasons why she dismissed Abigail from her household.
John tells the judge to summon Elizabeth to back him up because he knows she always tells the truth. This well-intentioned mistake seals both of their fates. This attitude comes from a man who has shown no remorse for condemning people to death throughout the play. He has sentenced people to death based on lies about their dealings in black magic, and he has accepted other false confessions from those who would rather lie than be executed.
Here are a few questions related to this theme that you can use to test your grasp of irony and its significance as a theme in The Crucible: Hale wrongly assumes that his academic mindset will save him from jumping to the wrong conclusions in the witchcraft investigation. Ironically, he is the first to demand a confession from Tituba based on Abigail's dramatic but false testimony. The thematic significance of hysteria builds quickly as accusations of witchcraft proliferate throughout Salem.
The power of collective hysteria ultimately becomes insurmountable because it grows larger than the influence of the few rational voices in the community. The seeds are planted in Act 1, when Abigail is questioned about her activities in the woods and ends up accusing Tituba of witchcraft to avoid punishment. Armed with the false proof of these coerced confessions, the court officials aggressively persecute anyone who is accused.
Hysteria blinds the people of Salem to reason as they become convinced that there is a grand Satanic plot brewing in town, and they must not hesitate to condemn anyone who could be involved. This is a lesson in how fear can twist perceptions of reality even for those who consider themselves reasonable under normal circumstances. Even before Abigail makes accusations, rumors of witchcraft have morphed into accepted truths in the minds of the more superstitious members of the community.
Ann Putnam jumps at any opportunity to blame supernatural forces for the deaths of her children. Parris is extremely dismayed by this revelation because of the damage it will do to his reputation. This vicious cycle continues to claim the lives of more and more people as the play progresses.
By Act 2, there are nearly 40 people in jail accused of witchcraft. Many people confess when threatened with execution, and this only heightens the paranoid atmosphere.
The authorities ignore any inconvenient logical objections to the proceedings because they, too, are swept up in the madness. The hysterical atmosphere and the dramatic performances of some of the accusers cause people to believe they have seen genuine proof of witchcraft. Like a struck beast, he says, and screamed a scream that a bull would weep to hear. And he goes to save her, and, stuck two inches in the flesh of her belly, he draw a needle out. The idea that a witch's familiar spirit is capable of stabbing people is too scary for the superstitious and now hysterical people of Salem to give Elizabeth the benefit of the doubt.
No one even considers Mary's statement about sticking the needle in herself. In this environment, whoever yells the loudest seems to get the most credibility. The depths of the hysteria that has gripped Salem are revealed in Act 3 when John finally confronts the court. The court refuses to challenge anyone who claims to have been afflicted.
When the petition testifying to the good character of the accused women is presented, the reaction from Danforth, Hathorne, and Parris is to arrest the people who signed it rather than considering that this might indicate that the women are innocent.
Nowhere is there any consideration of ulterior motives. The power of mass hysteria is further revealed when Mary is unable to faint outside of a charged courtroom environment. She believed she had seen spirits earlier because she was caught up in the delusions of those around her.
Abigail distracts the judges from any rational investigation in this act by playing into this hysteria. Will you confess yourself with him? Danforth insists that John must know more about the Devil's dealings than he has revealed. Though Rebecca Nurse's involvement has already been corroborated by other confessors, Danforth demands to hear it from John to confirm that John is fully committed to renouncing his supposed ties to Satan.
Here are a few questions about hysteria to consider now that you've read a summary of how this theme was expressed throughout the plot of the play:. Even though there is significant reason to believe Abigail is lying about Elizabeth's familiar spirit stabbing her, the frenzied investigators ignore testimony that challenges their chosen witchy narrative.
Concern for reputation is a theme that looms large over most of the events in The Crucible. Though actions are often motivated by fear and desires for power and revenge, they are also propped up by underlying worries about how a loss of reputation will negatively affect characters' lives.
Once there have been enough convictions, the reputations of the judges also become factors. They are extremely biased towards believing they have made the correct sentencing decisions in court thus far, so they are reluctant to accept new evidence that may prove them wrong.
The importance placed on reputation helps perpetuate hysteria because it leads to inaction, inflexibility, and, in many cases, active sabotage of the reputations of others for selfish purposes.
The overall message is that when a person's actions are driven by desires to preserve favorable public opinion rather than do the morally right thing, there can be extremely dire consequences. Reverend Parris' concerns about his reputation are immediately evident in Act 1. Parris is very quick to position himself on the side of the accusers as soon as Abigail throws the first punch, and he immediately threatens violence on Tituba if she doesn't confess pg.
He appears to have no governing system of morality. His only goal is to get on the good side of the community as a whole, even in the midst of this bout of collective hysteria. Abigail also shows concern for her reputation. She is enraged when Parris questions her suspicious dismissal from the Proctor household.
Abigail insists that she did nothing to deserve it and tries to put all the blame on Elizabeth Proctor. She says, "My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!
In this act, we learn more details about the accused that paint a clearer picture of the influence of reputation and social standing on the patterns of accusations. Goody Good, an old beggar woman, is one of the first to be named a witch. Rebecca Nurse, a woman whose character was previously thought to be unimpeachable, is accused and arrested. This is taken as evidence that things are really getting out of control "if Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing's left to stop the whole green world from burning.
People in power continue to believe the accusers out of fear for their own safety, taking the hysteria to a point where no one is above condemnation. At the end this act, John Proctor delivers a short monologue anticipating the imminent loss of the disguises of propriety worn by himself and other members of the Salem community.
The faces that people present to the public are designed to garner respect in the community, but the witch trials have thrown this system into disarray. John Proctor sabotages his own reputation in Act 3 after realizing it's the only way he can discredit Abigail. This is a decision with dire consequences in a town where reputation is so important, a fact that contributes to the misunderstanding that follows.
She continues to act under the assumption that his reputation is of the utmost importance to him, and she does not reveal the affair. This lie essentially condemns both of them. Danforth also acts out of concern for his reputations here. This fact could destroy his credibility , so he is biased towards continuing to trust Abigail. Danforth has extensive pride in his intelligence and perceptiveness.
This makes him particularly averse to accepting that he's been fooled by a teenage girl. Though hysteria overpowered the reputations of the accused in the past two acts, in act 4 the sticking power of their original reputations becomes apparent. Parris begs Danforth to postpone their hangings because he fears for his life if the executions proceed as planned.
In the final events of Act 4, John Proctor has a tough choice to make between losing his dignity and losing his life. The price he has to pay in reputation to save his own life is ultimately too high. I have given you my soul; leave me my name! Here are a few discussion questions to consider after you've read my summary of how the theme of reputation motivates characters and plot developments in The Crucible:.
If you're an old beggar woman who sometimes takes shelter in this creepy shack, you better believe these jerks are gonna turn on you as soon as anyone says the word "witch. Where before she was just an orphaned teenager, now, in the midst of the trials, she becomes the main witness to the inner workings of a Satanic plot. The main pillars of traditional power are represented by the law and the church.
These two institutions fuse together in The Crucible to actively encourage accusers and discourage rational explanations of events. The girls are essentially given permission by authority figures to continue their act because they are made to feel special and important for their participation. The people in charge are so eager to hold onto their power that if anyone disagrees with them in the way the trials are conducted, it is taken as a personal affront and challenge to their authority. Danforth, Hathorne, and Parris become even more rigid in their views when they feel they are under attack.
As mentioned in the overview, religion holds significant power over the people of Salem. Reverend Parris is in a position of power as the town's spiritual leader, but he is insecure about his authority. He believes there is a group of people in town determined to remove him from this position, and he will say and do whatever it takes to retain control.
This causes problems down the line as Parris allows his paranoia about losing his position to translate into enthusiasm for the witch hunt. Abigail, on the other hand, faces an uphill battle towards more power over her situation.
She is clearly outspoken and dominant, but her initial position in society is one of very little influence and authority. Abigail accuses Tituba first because Tituba is the one person below her on the ladder of power, so she makes an easy scapegoat.
If Tituba was permitted to explain what really happened, the ensuing tragedy might have been prevented. No one will listen to Tituba until she agrees to confirm the version of events that the people in traditional positions of authority have already decided is true, a pattern which continues throughout the play.
By Act 2, there have been notable changes in the power structure in Salem as a result of the ongoing trials. This new power is exciting and very dangerous because it encourages the girls to make additional accusations in order to preserve their value in the eyes of the court. Abigail, in particular, has quickly risen from a nobody to one of the most influential people in Salem.
No one thinks a teenage orphan girl is capable of such extensive deception or delusion , so she is consistently trusted. She openly threatens Danforth for even entertaining Mary and John's accusations of fraud against her. Though Danforth is the most powerful official figure in court, Abigail manipulates him easily with her performance as a victim of witchcraft.
He's already accepted her testimony as evidence, so he is happy for any excuse to believe her over John and Mary. John finally comes to the realization that Mary's truthful testimony cannot compete with the hysteria that has taken hold of the court. The petition he presents to Danforth is used as a weapon against the signers rather than a proof of the innocence of Elizabeth, Martha, and Rebecca.
Abigail's version of events is held to be true even after John confesses to their affair in a final effort to discredit her.
Logic has no power to combat paranoia and superstition even when the claims of the girls are clearly fraudulent. John Proctor surrenders his agency at the end of Act 3 in despair at the determination of the court to pursue the accusations of witchcraft and ignore all evidence of their falsehood. By Act 4, many of the power structures that were firmly in place earlier in the play have disintegrated. Reverend Parris has fallen from his position of authority as a result of the outcomes of the trials.
In Act 1 he jumped on board with the hysteria to preserve his power, but he ended up losing what little authority he had in the first place and, according to Miller's afterward, was voted out of office soon after the end of the play. The prisoners have lost all faith in earthly authority figures and look towards the judgment of God. The only power they have left is in refusing to confess and preserving their integrity. I n steadfastly refusing to confess, Rebecca Nurse holds onto a great deal of power.
The judges cannot force her to commit herself to a lie, and her martyrdom severely damages their legitimacy and favor amongst the townspeople.
Here are some discussion questions to consider after reading about the thematic role of the concepts of power and authority in the events of the play:. Mary Warren when she comes back from Salem in Act 2. These are themes that could be considered subsets of the topics detailed in the previous sections, but there's also room to discuss them as topics in their own right. I'll give a short summary of how each plays a role in the events of The Crucible.
The theme of guilt is one that is deeply relevant to John Proctor's character development throughout the play. John feels incredibly ashamed of his affair with Abigail, so he tries to bury it and pretend it never happened. His guilt leads to great tension in interactions with Elizabeth because he projects his feelings onto her, accusing her of being judgmental and dwelling on his mistakes. In reality, he is constantly judging himself, and this leads to outbursts of anger against others who remind him of what he did he already feels guilty enough!
Hale also contends with his guilt in act 4 for his role in condemning the accused witches , who he now believes are innocent. There's a message here about the choices we have in dealing with guilt. John attempts to crush his guilt instead of facing it, which only ends up making it an even more destructive factor in his life.
Hale tries to combat his guilt by persuading the prisoners to confess, refusing to accept that the damage has already been done. Both Hale and Proctor don't want to live with the consequences of their mistakes, so they try to ignore or undo their past actions.
Miller's portrayal of women in The Crucible is a much-discussed topic. The attitudes towards women in the s, when the play was written, are evident in the roles they're given. Abigail feeds on the fact that no one would dare to expose her if they feared her so terribly. Abigail lies in Act I when Reverend Parris confronts her after finding her and other girls dancing in the woods and practicing witchcraft with Tituba.
There be no blush about my name. We will write a custom essay sample on The Crucible — Character Essay: Unlike the other characters, she is not very complex and is clearly the villain of the play. Her motivation is simple jealousy and her desire to be with John Proctor. She is an unmarried, orphan who watched as her parents were murdered by Indians.
The witch trials, in which the girls are allowed to act as though they have a direct connection to God, empower the previously powerless Abigail. Once shunned and scorned by the respectable townsfolk, Abigail now finds that she has authority, and she takes full advantage of it. Throughout the play many of the events, in some way or another, have to deal with Abigail or occur as a result of something that she did. She is the most memorable character of the play simply for that reason.
Even when Abigail leaves town for the Barbados when her hopes of being with John Proctor are shattered, her previous actions still have tremendous effect on the lives of the accused. Although Abigail Williams is the cause of many problems, her influence in The Crucible is undeniable.
The Crucible — Character Essay: Accessed September 14,
The Crucible essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Crucible by Arthur Miller.
- Long Essay - The Crucible q How is language used in The Crucible to express the emotional intensity if characters in conflict with each other and/or society and to convey the abstract ideas that emerge through that conflict. The Crucible is a play written by Arthur Miller in
One of the most prominent themes in The Crucible is the importance of a good name. Analyze what a good name means to several of the characters, using specific examples to support your conclusions. Outline I. Thesis Statement: One central motif of The Crucible is the importance of a good name. The meaning of a good name to John Proctor at the end of the play, however, is vastly different from the . The Crucible Essay. BACK; NEXT ; Writer’s block can be painful, but we’ll help get you over the hump and build a great outline for your paper.
The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay Words | 3 Pages The Crucible, written by Arthur Miller is a play that takes place in the late 17th century during the famous yet tragic witch trials. In Arthur Miller's play, The Crucible, three characters John Proctor, judge Danforth, and Abigail Williams all value their reputation. These characters in The Crucible have strong feelings about how others view their overall quality or character. Unfortunately other characters in the play have to .