The Constitution reserves fifty percent of the House may force the resignation of the cabinet by voting a motion of censure. For this reason, the Prime Minister and his cabinet are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly, in the case of a president and house from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation.
The most recent elections held in , the Shura Council was the member upper house of Parliament created in In the Shura Council members were elected and 88 members were appointed by the President of the Republic for six-year terms. From its inception, it was by far the most powerful of the parties to emerge from the Arab Socialist Union, the former ruling party since However, in contrast to ASUs strong emphasis on Arab nationalism and Arab socialism, the NDP was a member of the Socialist International from , until it was expelled in , in response to the revolution.
The party was dissolved on 16 April by court order, the electoral system in Egypt under which the National Democratic Party operated did not meet internationally recognized standards of electoral democracies. According to the Freedom House, the system is designed to ensure solid majorities for the ruling NDP at all levels of government.
Dessouki also stated that the center of power in Egypt is the military. The truth of the matter is that participation and pluralism are now at lower levels than at any time since Mubarak assumed the presidency in the wake of Anwar Sadats assassination. Freedom House ranks Egypts Political Rights Score 6 and Civil Liberties Score 5, Egypt has operated under a state of emergency for all but five months since , allowing the president to outlaw demonstrations, hold detainees indefinitely without trial, and issue law by decree.
Generally, emergency law provides the government with the authority to control every level of political activity, the duration of the law is three years, but it is routinely renewed. In total, the state of emergency declared during the war lasted for 13 years, President Mubarak argued in his Presidential Public Address in that emergency law is required in order to confront terrorism protect democracy and stability.
In practice, though, the law was used to not only control and contain terrorism, for example, campaign gatherings require prior permission from the Ministry of Interior under emergency law. Thus, when a candidate plans to hold a meeting, he must submit an application to the local police station stating details such as date, location. The application is sent to the Ministry of Interior for consideration. The Peoples Assembly, which is characterised as the lower house of Egypts quasi-bicameral legislature, is constitutionally empowered to question.
However, that it chooses to not do so cannot be attributed to unanimous approval of presidential policies, in actuality, the Peoples Assembly is restricted to the role of rubber-stamping presidential authority because it is confined by presidential powers beyond its control. Under Article of the Constitution, the president is able to have his proposals bypass the Peoples Assembly, consequently, it is impossible for the Assembly to consider or reject the policy.
Arabic — Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is also the language of 1. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media.
The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it.
Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin. Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish.
Arabic has also borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar.
Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor.
In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested. To the north of the district is located the bulk of the newer industrial plants. The history of Bulaq goes back to the Mamluk rule of the century when the site was the main port of Cairo filled with several Wikalas.
The new Egyptian Museum of Antiquities was established at Bulaq in in a former warehouse, the building lay on the bank of the Nile River, and in it suffered significant damage in a flood. In , the collections were moved to a royal palace. They remained there until when they were moved, for the last time, the Museums former location is indicated by the continued existence of a Maspero Street, named after the second head of the Antiquities Department.
Cairo — Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Cairo has long been a center of the political and cultural life. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the worlds second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city, with a population of 6. Cairo, like many other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution, Cairos metro, one of only two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides.
In Coptic the city is known as Kahire, meaning Place of the Sun, possibly referring to the ancient city of Heliopolis, the location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams. The ancient Egyptian name for the area is thought to be Khere-Ohe, The Place of Combat, sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro. The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis, had long been a point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium.
Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance and this fortress, known as Babylon, remained the nucleus of the Roman, and, later, the Byzantine, city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, many of Cairos oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo. Following the Muslim conquest in AD the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area became known as al-Fustat.
Originally a tented camp Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt, in , following the overthrow of the Ummayad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital.
This was known as al-Askar as it was laid out like a military camp, a rebellion in by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government.
This was al-Qattai, to the north of Fustat and closer to the river, Al Qattai was centred around a palace and ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their returned to Fustat.
Media of Egypt — The media of Egypt is highly influential in Egypt and in the Arab World, attributed to its large audience and increasing freedom from governmental control. Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution, and the government is increasingly respecting this, after the Egyptian presidential election of , Ahmed Selim, office director for Information Minister Anas al-Fiqi, declared the era of free, transparent and independent Egyptian media.
The printing press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte during his French Campaign in Egypt and he brought with his expedition a French, Arabic, and Greek printing press, which were far superior in speed, efficiency and quality than the nearest presses used in Istanbul.
In the Middle East, Africa, India, and even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, from about , the Mutaferrika Press in Istanbul produced substantial amounts of printing, of which some Egyptian clerics were aware at the time.
The written press is diverse in Egypt, with over newspapers, journals. However these are owned mostly or in some way by the government, however, unlike many of Egypts regional counterparts, criticism of the government in general does take place, after amendments to existing press laws in which however still criminalise libel. Should be used responsibly and not touch on the foundations of Egyptian society. Over the past two decades, Al-Azhar University censored more than texts, there are two state broadcasters and an increasing number of private broadcasters.
Figures from the CIA World Factbook state more than 98 television channels in , the Ministry of Information controls content in the state-owned broadcast media. The previously tight controls on state TV and radio gave way to even and fair coverage of all parties involved in the Egyptian presidential election of However, in several journalists working for the Cairo branch of the Qatar-based Al-Jazeera were detained for investigating subjects such as police brutality, Egyptian radio broadcasting began to serve in Egypt in the s as locally owned radios.
They began airing radio as The Egyptian State Radio on the 31 May in an agreement with the Marconi Company, in the contract with the Marconi Company was canceled and radio broadcasting was nationalized by the Egyptian government. By the early s, Egypt had only four FM stations, in stations moving from the AM band and the introduction of private stations raised the number to ten stations as of Radio has also historically been utilized as a tool in Egypt beginning under the rule of President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Nasser became president of Egypt in and served until his death in , when Nasser came to power he realized that radio could be utilized as a powerful political tool for two reasons. First, the rate in Egypt has been traditionally high. Using radio to spread ideas, therefore, allowed a greater number of the population to hear his political ideas. At the time, they were linked administratively through the Diplomatic Affairs Foundation, in its early years, MEI concentrated on establishing a library, publishing the Middle East Journal, holding annual conferences and sponsoring formal courses in Middle East studies at SAIS.
Keiser and his group recognized the need for studying the Middle East using the framework of area studies and this interdisciplinary approach to training diplomats and businesspeople was a new phenomenon at the time and as such closely linked to foreign policy initiatives in the United States. During its founding years, the Institute was small, its membership resembling that of a club, George Camp Keiser was born on November 2,, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After graduating from Harvard University with a Bachelor of Arts in , over the following years, he worked as a draftsman for David Hyer and James Gamble Rogers until he opened his own practice in Following his younger brothers career path, Keiser also became director of the Cuban-American Sugar Company, George Keiser built his family a home inspired by Islamic architecture, showcasing his fascination with the Middle East and Middle Eastern architecture in particular.
He was also a member of the American Institute of Architects and he died on March 23,, after a brief illness and was buried in Wilton, Connecticut.
MEI continuously built its reputation by creating a language- as well as a publications program, MEI also increased the number of lectures, art exhibits, and conferences. Keisers death in triggered a period of re-evaluation, edwin M. Wright took over as the second president until , with Angus Sinclair briefly serving in Following Keisers death, MEI faced financial troubles, among these were Lands East, an illustrated magazine, and the Middle East Report of the Week, an insiders newsletter which was produced on a mimeograph machine.
Hare stabilized the organization at a relatively low level of activity appropriate with its resources, concentrating on fundraising and expanding the base of corporate donations. Georgetown University invited the Institute to hold its annual conference there, providing free accommodations, in , Ambassador Parker T.
Hart led MEI into renewed activity. The s were marked by a number of timely programs and events. Furthermore, MEI started a program called Dialogue in in cooperation with the Arabist Travel Program and it sent small teams of scholars and students to seven Arab countries.
The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility.
While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern.
The Times was printed in broadsheet format for years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of , in December , in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to , is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane.
Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house.
The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January , unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after editions on 1 January to The Times.
In , Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large.
Beginning in , the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in , The Times had a circulation of 5, Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in The New York Times has won Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in to fewer than one million.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In , the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone.
Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In , the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of , the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the s under the guidance of Ochs.
Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in , the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began.
The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the s, the extended its breadth and reach.
The crossword began appearing regularly in , and the section in Arab world — The Arab world, also known as the Arab nation or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
The contemporary Arab world has a population of around million inhabitants. In the Middle Ages, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates, Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The Arab League was formed in to represent the interests of Arab people and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries, the linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is generally dominant over genealogical considerations.
In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the language used by the government. Although no globally accepted definition of the Arab world exists, all countries that are members of the Arab League are generally acknowledged as being part of the Arab world. This standard territorial definition is seen to be inappropriate or problematic. These parameters may be applied to the states and territories of the Arab League, typical parameters that may be applied include, whether Arabic is widely spoken, whether Arabic is an official or national language, or whether an Arabic cognate language is widely spoken.
While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, several states have declared Arabic to be an official or national language, although Arabic is today not as widely spoken there. As members of the Arab League, however, they are considered part of the Arab world under the territorial definition. Somalia has two official languages today, Arabic and Somali, both of which belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family, although Arabic is widely spoken by many people in the north, Somali is the most widely used language, and contains many Arabic loan words.
Similarly, Djibouti has two languages, Arabic and French. It also has several formally recognized national languages, besides Somali, many people speak Afar, the majority of the population speaks Somali and Afar, although Arabic is also widely used for trade and other activities. Comoros has three languages, Arabic, Comorian and French. Comorian is the most widely spoken language, with Arabic having a religious significance, Israel is not part of the Arab world.
By some definitions, Arab citizens of Israel may concurrently be considered a constituent part of the Arab world, Iran has about 1. Alexandria — Alexandria is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is also an important tourist destination, Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town c. Alexanders chief architect for the project was Dinocrates, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley.
The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews, the city was later plundered and lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland, as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion.
The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore also and it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to his city, after Alexanders departure, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion.
Although Cleomenes was mainly in charge of overseeing Alexandrias continuous development, the Heptastadion, inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage.
In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and and it became Egypts main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world.
The Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there, in AD, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. On 21 July , Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami, the Islamic prophet, Muhammads first interaction with the people of Egypt occurred in , during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha.
But if you refuse to do so, you bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts. Lebanese people — The Lebanese people are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon. The term may include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state.
As the relative proportion of the various sects is politically sensitive and it is therefore difficult to have an exact demographic analysis of Lebanese society. The largest concentration of people of Lebanese ancestry may be in Brazil having a population of 5. The Lebanese have always traveled the world, many of them settling permanently, descendants of Lebanese Christians make up the majority of Lebanese people worldwide, appearing principally in the diaspora.
As the second of two languages of Judaism, Aramaic was also retained as a language in the sphere of religion among Lebanese Jews. Arab influence, nevertheless, applies to all aspects of the modern Lebanese culture. The total population of Lebanese people is estimated at million, of these, the vast majority, or 8. There are approximately 4. Lebanon is also a multi-ethnic society, prominent ethnic minorities in the country include the Armenians, the Kurds, the Turks, the Assyrians, the Iranians and many European ethnicities.
The Lebanese diaspora consists of approximately 8. The largest number of Lebanese is to be found in Brazil, in the rest of the Americas, significant communities are found in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Venezuela, with almost every other Latin American country having at least a small presence. In Africa, Ghana and the Ivory Coast are home to over , Lebanese, there are significant Lebanese populations in other countries throughout Western and Central Africa.
Australia hosts over , and Canada ,, in the Arab world, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf harbour around , Lebanese. Lebanese people also can be found in all of the 28 member states of the European Union, more than 2, ex-SLA members remain in Israel.
Levant — The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. The term Levant entered English in the late 15th century from French and it derives from the Italian Levante, meaning rising, implying the rising of the sun in the east.
As such, it is equivalent to the Arabic term Mashriq. Eventually the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine, in , England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire. The name Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and this is probably the reason why the term Levant has come to be used synonymously with Syria-Palestine.
Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking that it derives from the name of Lebanon, today the term is typically used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references. It does not include Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains, or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper, the Sinai Peninsula is sometimes included. The Levant has been described as the crossroads of western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, and northeast Africa, the populations of the Levant share not only the geographic position, but cuisine, some customs, and a very long history.
They are often referred to as Levantines, the term Levant, which appeared in English in , originally meant the East in general or Mediterranean lands east of Italy. It is borrowed from the French levant rising, referring to the rising of the sun in the east, the phrase is ultimately from the Latin word levare, meaning lift, raise.
The notion of the Levant has undergone a process of historical evolution in usage, meaning. While the term Levantine originally referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it came to refer to regional native.
In early 19th-century travel writing, the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire, in 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture. The French mandate of Syria and Lebanon was called the Levant states, today, Levant is the term typically used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the history of the region.
Scholars have adopted the term Levant to identify the region due to it being a wider, yet relevant, archaeologists seeking a neutral orientation that is neither biblical nor national have used terms such as Levantine archaeology and archaeology of the Southern Levant.
Muhammad Abduh — He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma, and family ties. Muhammad Abduh was born in to a Turkish father and Arab mother in Lower Egypt and his family was of the Egyptian elite. His father was part of the Umad, or the ruling elite. His mother was part of the Ashraf and he was educated in Tanta at a private school. He was a student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, a philosopher, under al-Afghanis influence, Abduh combined journalism, politics, and his own fascination in Islamic mystical spirituality.
Al-Afghani taught Abduh about the problems of Egypt and the Islamic world, in , Abduh was granted the degree of Alim and he started to teach logic, theology and ethics at al-Azhar. In , he was appointed professor of history at Cairos teachers training college Dar al-Ulum and he was also appointed to teach Arabic at the Khedivial School of Languages. He was dedicated to reforming all aspects of Egyptian society and believed that education was the best way to achieve this goal.
In his articles he criticized corruption, superstition, and the lives of the rich. In , due to his activity, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani was exiled. The following year he was granted control of the national gazette and used this as a means to spread his ideas. He was exiled from Egypt by the British in for six years and he had stated that every society should be allowed to choose a suitable form of government based on its history and its present circumstances. Abduh spent several years in Ottoman Lebanon, where he helped establish an Islamic educational system, in he moved to Paris, France where he joined al-Afghani in publishing The Firmest Bond, an Islamic revolutionary journal that promoted anti-British views.
Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the first president of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of He took office on 18 June , the day on which the monarchy of Egypt was overthrown. Following the Egyptian revolution, Hosni Mubarak, who held office from 14 October until 11 February , was forced to resign following calls for his removal from office.
The Egyptian Constitution has had various forms since its change to become a republic, under the amendments of the Egyptian Constitution, the president of the republic was elected indirectly in a two-stage system unique to Egypt.
In and , constitutional amendments were made, principles in the amended constitution include, The election of the president of the republic by direct secret ballot from among all citizens who have the right to vote. Ensuring that multiple candidates be put forward for the people to choose from, ensuring the credibility of the nomination process.
Providing the opportunity for political parties to put one of their leaders to contest the first presidential elections to be held in light of the amendment. The establishment of an election commission that would enjoy complete independence to supervise the election process.
Carrying out the election in a single day, ensuring judicial supervision over the voting process. The following provisions regarding the process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended.
If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round. The candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared president, the amendment also provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures.
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Name: Size: Created at: Type: Download: Al-Ahram Daily Reportpdf: 1, KB: 04/09/pdf: Download: Al-Ahram Intraday Technical Report pdf. This report presents the findings of three surveys conducted in 22 governorates across Egypt by the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies between August and October and additional interviews with key professors and researchers in Egypt.