The experiences with talking and listening gained during the preschool period prepare children to learn to read and ite during the early elementary school years. This means that children who enter school with weaker verbal abilities are much more likely to experience difficulties learning literacy skills than those who do not.
One spoken language skill that is strongly connected to early reading and writing is phonological awareness — the recognition that words are made up of separate speech sounds, for example, that the word dog is composed of three sounds: There are a variety of oral language activities that show children's natural development of phonological awareness, including rhyming e.
As children playfully engage in sound play, they eventually learn to segment words into their separate sounds, and "map" sounds onto printed letters, which allows them to begin to learn to read and write. Children who perform well on sound awareness tasks become successful readers and writers, while children who struggle with such tasks often do not.
Who is at Risk? There are some early signs that may place a child at risk for the acquisition of literacy skills. Preschool children with speech and language disorders often experience problems learning to read and write when they enter school. Other factors include physical or medical conditions e. Early Warning Signs Signs that may indicate later reading and writing and learning problems include persistent baby talk, absence of interest in or appreciation for nursery rhymes or shared book reading, difficulty understanding simple directions, difficulty learning or remembering names of letters, failure to recognize or identify letters in the child's own name.
Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist Speech-language pathologists SLPs have a key role in promoting the emergent literacy skills of all children, and especially those with known or suspected literacy-related learning difficulties. The SLP may help to prevent such problems, identify children at risk for reading and writing difficulties, and provide intervention to remediate literacy-related difficulties.
Prevention efforts involve working in collaboration with families, other caregivers, and teachers to ensure that young children have high quality and ample opportunities to participate in emergent literacy activities both at home and in daycare and preschool environments.
SLPs also help older children or those with developmental delays who have missed such opportunities. Children who have difficulty grasping emergent literacy games and activities may be referred for further assessment so that intervention can begin as early as possible to foster growth in needed areas and increase the likelihood of successful learning and academic achievement. Early Intervention Is Critical Emergent literacy instruction is most beneficial when it begins early in the preschool period because these difficulties are persistent and often affect children's further language and literacy learning throughout the school years.
Promoting literacy development, however, is not confined to young children. Older children, particularly those with speech and language impairments, may be functioning in the emergent literacy stage and require intervention aimed at establishing and strengthening these skills that are essential to learning to read and write. What Parents Can Do You can help your child develop literacy skills during regular activities without adding extra time to your day. There also are things you can do during planned play and reading times.
Show your children that reading and writing are a part of everyday life and can be fun and enjoyable. Activities for preschool children include the following: Talk to your child and name objects, people, and events in the everyday environment. Repeat your child's strings of sounds e. Talk to your child during daily routine activities such as bath or mealtime and respond to his or her questions.
Draw your child's attention to print in everyday settings such as traffic signs, store logos, and food containers. If you notice some of the following things about your child by the time she is 6 years old, you may want to talk to an occupational therapist , or another health professional in the community. Once your child is in school, the expectations for writing tasks get higher very quickly.
If your child is showing any of the following problems, you should discuss it with his teacher. You can also contact our centre to speak to an occupational therapist, or to make a referral. Parent Handouts Good Sitting Posture. Printing and Handwriting Development Learning to print or write is one of the most complex motor skills your child will learn. Between the ages of months, your child will: Imitate you by scribbling with a crayon or pencil Start to make marks with a crayon rather than banging it Do his own scribbling on paper or other surfaces Hold the crayon in her fist Between the ages of 18months to 2 years, your child will: Paint or colour without going beyond a large piece of paper e.
Cannot pick up a crayon and scribble on paper Still prefers to eat or bang crayons instead of scribble with them Between the ages of years, your child will: Does not scribble or make marks on paper when given a crayon Cannot imitate you drawing a straight line Still holds the crayon in a full fist Between the ages of years, your child will: Cannot draw straight lines and circles Still holds the crayon in a full fist Does not use a variety of strokes when colouring i. Print all letters and numbers without copying Red Flags for Printing and Handwriting Development 6 years of age If you notice some of the following things about your child by the time she is 6 years old, you may want to talk to an occupational therapist , or another health professional in the community.
Don't feel pressured to push your child to learn to write, Wait until he's really interested and excited about it. Writing is a developmental skill that does not have a formal timetable, so toddlers can take their time and still be developmentally on track.
Almost every interaction in a child's world is preparing them to become a reader and writer. This article outlines the stages of writing development, and tips for adults to help along the way.
Encourage your child to describe or tell a story about his/her drawing and write down the words. If you have concerns about your child's speech and language development or emergent literacy skills, please contact a certified speech-language pathologist. These child development research paper topics will serve you well with choosing the subject for your future paper. Check these out and get a better idea of what would be better for you.
Model authentic writing by letting your child see you pencil events onto a calendar, write a shopping list, fill out forms, and compose thank you notes. c. Continue the morning message, sentence dictation, and patterned language charts from the previous stage. For very young children, there are four stages of drawing and writing that you may see as your child grows from 15 months to 3 years old. By offering repeated fun experiences with a variety of art and writing materials, you will see forward progress over time. Creativity is a bridge to learning.